## IACR News

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#### 27 March 2023

###### Farshid Haidary Makoui, T. Aaron Gulliver

ePrint Report
The generalized inverses of systematic non-square binary matrices have applications in mathematics, channel coding and decoding, navigation signals, machine learning, data storage and cryptography such as the McEliece and Niederreiter public-key cryptosystems.
A systematic non-square $(n-k) \times k$ matrix $H$, $n > k$, has $2^{k\times(n-k)}$ different generalized inverse matrices.
This paper presents an algorithm for generating these matrices and compares it with two well-known methods, i.e. Gauss-Jordan elimination and Moore-Penrose methods. A random generalized inverse matrix construction method is given which has a lower execution time than the Gauss-Jordan elimination and Moore-Penrose approaches.

###### Léo Ducas

ePrint Report
The Lattice Isomorphism Problem (LIP) is the computational task of recovering, assuming it exists, a orthogonal linear transformation sending one lattice to another. For cryptographic purposes, the case of the trivial lattice $\mathbb Z^n$ is of particular interest ($\mathbb Z$LIP). Heuristic analysis suggests that the BKZ algorithm with blocksize $\beta = n/2 + o(n)$ solves such instances (Ducas, Postlethwaite, Pulles, van Woerden, ASIACRYPT 2022).

In this work, I propose a provable version of this statement, namely, that $\mathbb Z$LIP can indeed be solved by making polynomially many calls to a Shortest Vector Problem (SVP) oracle in dimension at most $n/2 + 1$.

In this work, I propose a provable version of this statement, namely, that $\mathbb Z$LIP can indeed be solved by making polynomially many calls to a Shortest Vector Problem (SVP) oracle in dimension at most $n/2 + 1$.

###### Corentin Jeudy, Adeline Roux-Langlois, Olivier Sanders

ePrint Report
Preimage Sampling is a fundamental process in lattice-based cryptography whose performance directly affects the one of the cryptographic mechanisms that rely on it. In 2012, Micciancio and Peikert proposed a new way of generating trapdoors (and an associated preimage sampling procedure) with very interesting features. Unfortunately, in some applications such as digital signatures, the performance may not be as competitive as other approaches like Fiat-Shamir with Aborts.
In this work we revisit the Micciancio-Peikert preimage sampling algorithm with different contributions. We first propose a finer analysis of this procedure which results in interesting efficiency gains of around 20% on the preimage sizes without affecting security. It can thus be used as a drop-in replacement in every construction resorting to it.
We then reconsider the Lyubashevsky-Wichs sampler for Micciancio-Peikert trapdoors which leverages rejection sampling but suffered from strong parameter requirements that hampered performance. We propose an improved analysis which allows to obtain much more compact parameters. This leads to gains of up to 30% compared to the original Micciancio-Peikert sampling technique and opens promising perspectives for the efficiency of advanced lattice-based constructions relying on such mechanisms.
As an application of the latter, we give the first lattice-based aggregate signature supporting public aggregation and that achieves relevant compression compared to the concatenation of individual signatures. Our scheme is proven secure in the aggregate chosen-key model coined by Boneh et al. in 2003, based on the well-studied assumptions Module Learning With Errors and Module Short Integer Solution.

###### Elizabeth Crites, Chelsea Komlo, Mary Maller

ePrint Report
We prove adaptive security of a simple three-round threshold Schnorr signature scheme, which we call Sparkle. The standard notion of security for threshold signatures considers a static adversary – one who must declare which parties are corrupt at the beginning of the protocol. The stronger adaptive adversary can at any time corrupt parties and learn their state. This notion is natural and practical, yet not proven to be met by most schemes in the literature.

In this paper, we demonstrate that Sparkle achieves several levels of security based on different corruption models and assumptions. To begin with, Sparkle is statically secure under minimal assumptions: the discrete logarithm assumption (DL) and the random oracle model (ROM). If an adaptive adversary corrupts fewer than t/2 out of a threshold of t + 1 signers, then Sparkle is adaptively secure under a weaker variant of the one-more discrete logarithm assumption (AOMDL) in the ROM. Finally, we prove that Sparkle achieves full adaptive security, with a corruption threshold of t, under AOMDL in the algebraic group model (AGM) with random oracles. Importantly, we show adaptive security without requiring secure erasures. Ours is the first proof achieving full adaptive security without exponential tightness loss for any threshold Schnorr signature scheme; moreover, the reduction is tight.

In this paper, we demonstrate that Sparkle achieves several levels of security based on different corruption models and assumptions. To begin with, Sparkle is statically secure under minimal assumptions: the discrete logarithm assumption (DL) and the random oracle model (ROM). If an adaptive adversary corrupts fewer than t/2 out of a threshold of t + 1 signers, then Sparkle is adaptively secure under a weaker variant of the one-more discrete logarithm assumption (AOMDL) in the ROM. Finally, we prove that Sparkle achieves full adaptive security, with a corruption threshold of t, under AOMDL in the algebraic group model (AGM) with random oracles. Importantly, we show adaptive security without requiring secure erasures. Ours is the first proof achieving full adaptive security without exponential tightness loss for any threshold Schnorr signature scheme; moreover, the reduction is tight.

###### Shingo Sato, Junji Shikata

ePrint Report
Bounded-collusion identity-based encryption (BC-IBE) is a variant of identity-based encryption, where an adversary obtains user secrete keys corresponding to at most $d$ identities. From results of existing work, it is proven that BC-IBE can be constructed from public key encryption (PKE) with several properties. In particular, we focus on post-quantum PKE schemes submitted to the NIST PQC competition, as the underlying PKE of BC-IBE schemes. This is because post-quantum cryptography is one of active research areas, due to recent advancement of developing quantum computers. Hence, it is reasonable to consider converting such PKE schemes into encryption schemes with additional functionalities. By using existing generic constructions of BC-IBE, those post-quantum PKE schemes are transformed into BC-IBE with non-compact public parameter.
In this paper, we propose generic constructions of BC-IBE whose public parameter-size is more compact, and it is possible to apply many post-quantum PKE schemes secure against chosen plaintext attacks, into our generic constructions. To this end, we construct BC-IBE schemes from a group testing perspective, while existing ones are constructed by employing error-correcting codes or cover-free families. As a result, we can obtain BC-IBE schemes with more compact public parameter, which are constructed from the NIST PQC PKE schemes.

###### Yuiko Matsubara, Daiki Miyahara, Yohei Watanabe, Mitsugu Iwamoto, Kazuo Sakiyama

ePrint Report
A thread of physical attacks that try to obtain secret information from cryptographic modules has been of academic and practical interest. One of the concerns is determining its efficiency, e.g., the number of attack trials to recover the secret key. However, the accurate estimation of the attack efficiency is generally expensive because of the complexity of the physical attack on a cryptographic algorithm. Based on this background, in this study, we propose a new abstraction model for evaluating the attack efficiency of the probing and DFA attacks. The proposed model includes an abstracted attack target and attacker to determine the amount of leaked information obtained in a single attack trial. We can adapt the model flexibly to various attack scenarios and can get the attack efficiency quickly and precisely. In the probing attack on AES, the difference in the attack efficiency is only approximately 0.3% between the model and experimental values, whereas that of a previous model is approximately 16%. We also apply the probing attack on DES, and the results show that DES has a high resistance to the probing attack. Moreover, the proposed model works accurately also for the DFA attack on AES.

###### Jingwei Chen, Yong Feng, Yang Liu, Wenyuan Wu, Guanci Yang

ePrint Report
In this paper, we propose a non-interactive privacy-preserving naive Bayes classifier from leveled fully homomorphic encryption schemes. The classifier runs on a server that is also the model’s owner (modeler), whose input is the encrypted data from a client. The classifier produces encrypted classification results, which can only be decrypted by the client, while the modelers model is only accessible to the server. Therefore, the classifier does not leak any privacy on either the servers model or the clients data and results. More importantly, the classifier does not require any interactions between the server and the client during the classification phase. The main technical ingredient is an algorithm that computes the maximum index of an encrypted array homomorphically without any interactions. The proposed classifier is implemented using HElib. Experiments show the accuracy and efficiency of our classifier. For instance, the average cost can achieve about 34ms per sample for a real data set in UCI Machine Learning Repository with the security parameter about 100 and accuracy about 97%.

###### Boris Ryabko

ePrint Report
We consider the problem of constructing an unconditionally secure cipher with a short key for the case where the probability distribution of encrypted messages is unknown. Note that unconditional security means that an adversary with no computational constraints can obtain only a negligible amount of information ("leakage") about an encrypted message (without knowing the key).
Here we consider the case of a priori (partially) unknown message source statistics.
More specifically, the message source probability distribution belongs to a given family of distributions. We propose an unconditionally secure cipher for this case. As an example, one can consider constructing
a single cipher for texts written in any of the languages of the European Union. That is, the message to be encrypted could be written in any of these languages.

###### Hannah Davis, Matthew Green, Nadia Heninger, Keegan Ryan, Adam Suhl

ePrint Report
In this paper, we study both the implications and potential impact of backdoored parameters for two RSA-based pseudorandom number generators: the ISO-standardized Micali-Schnorr generator and a closely related design, the RSA PRG. We observe, contrary to common understanding, that the security of the Micali-Schnorr PRG is not tightly bound to the difficulty of inverting RSA. We show that the Micali-Schnorr construction remains secure even if one replaces RSA with a publicly evaluatable PRG, or a function modeled as an efficiently invertible random permutation. This implies that any cryptographic backdoor must somehow exploit the algebraic structure of RSA, rather than an attacker's ability to invert RSA or the presence of secret keys. We exhibit two such backdoors in related constructions: a family of exploitable parameters for the RSA PRG, and a second vulnerable construction for a finite-field variant of Micali-Schnorr. We also observe that the parameters allowed by the ISO standard are incompletely specified, and allow insecure choices of exponent. Several of our backdoor constructions make use of lattice techniques, in particular multivariate versions of Coppersmith's method for finding small solutions to polynomials modulo integers.

###### Karim Eldefrawy, Sashidhar Jakkamsetti, Ben Terner, Moti Yung

ePrint Report
The introduction of time-lock puzzles initiated the study of publicly “sending information into the future.” For time-lock puzzles, the underlying security-enabling mechanism is the computational complexity of the operations needed to solve the puzzle, which must be tunable to reveal the solution after a predetermined time, and not before that time. Time-lock puzzles are typically constructed via a commitment to a secret, paired with a reveal algorithm that sequentially iterates a basic function
over such commitment. One then shows that short-cutting the iterative process violates cryptographic hardness of an underlying problem.

To date, and for more than twenty-five years, research on time-lock puzzles relied heavily on iteratively applying well-structured algebraic functions. However, despite the tradition of cryptography to reason about primitives in a realistic model with standard hardness assumptions (often after initial idealized assumptions), most analysis of time-lock puzzles to date still relies on cryptography modeled (in an ideal manner) as a random oracle function or a generic group function. Moreover, Mahmoody et al. showed that time-lock puzzles with superpolynomial gap cannot be constructed from random-oracles; yet still, current treatments generally use an algebraic trapdoor to efficiently construct a puzzle with a large time gap, and then apply the inconsistent (with respect to Mahmoody et al.) random-oracle idealizations to analyze the solving process. Finally, little attention has been paid to the nuances of composing multi-party computation with timed puzzles that are solved as part of the protocol.

In this work, we initiate a study of time-lock puzzles in a model built upon a realistic (and falsifiable) computational framework. We present a new formal definition of residual complexity to characterize a realistic, gradual time-release for time-lock puzzles. We also present a general definition of timed multi-party computation (MPC) and both sequential and concurrent composition theorems for MPC in our model.

To date, and for more than twenty-five years, research on time-lock puzzles relied heavily on iteratively applying well-structured algebraic functions. However, despite the tradition of cryptography to reason about primitives in a realistic model with standard hardness assumptions (often after initial idealized assumptions), most analysis of time-lock puzzles to date still relies on cryptography modeled (in an ideal manner) as a random oracle function or a generic group function. Moreover, Mahmoody et al. showed that time-lock puzzles with superpolynomial gap cannot be constructed from random-oracles; yet still, current treatments generally use an algebraic trapdoor to efficiently construct a puzzle with a large time gap, and then apply the inconsistent (with respect to Mahmoody et al.) random-oracle idealizations to analyze the solving process. Finally, little attention has been paid to the nuances of composing multi-party computation with timed puzzles that are solved as part of the protocol.

In this work, we initiate a study of time-lock puzzles in a model built upon a realistic (and falsifiable) computational framework. We present a new formal definition of residual complexity to characterize a realistic, gradual time-release for time-lock puzzles. We also present a general definition of timed multi-party computation (MPC) and both sequential and concurrent composition theorems for MPC in our model.

###### René Rodríguez, Enes Pasalic, Fengrong Zhang, Yongzhuang Wei

ePrint Report
In this article, we propose generalizations to the non-binary scenario of the methods employed in [44] for constructing minimal linear codes. Specifically, we provide three constructions of minimal codes over $\mathbb{F}_p$. The first construction uses the method of direct sum of an arbitrary function $f:\mathbb{F}_{p^r}\to \mathbb{F}_{p}$ and a bent function $g:\mathbb{F}_{p^s}\to \mathbb{F}_p$ to induce minimal codes with parameters $[p^{r+s}-1,r+s+1]$ and minimum distance larger than $p^r(p-1)(p^{s-1}-p^{s/2-1})$. For the first time, we provide a general construction of linear codes from a subclass of non-weakly regular plateaued functions. The second construction deals with a bent function $g:\mathbb{F}_{p^m}\to \mathbb{F}_p$ and a subspace of suitable derivatives $U$ of $g$, i.e., functions of the form $g(y+a)-g(y)$ for some $a\in \mathbb{F}_{p^m}^*.$ We also provide a generalization of the recently introduced concept of non-covering permutations [44] and prove important properties of this class of permutations. The most notable observation is that the class of non-covering permutations contains the class of APN power permutations (characterized by having two-to-one derivatives). Finally, the last construction combines the previous two methods (direct sum, non-covering permutations and subspaces of derivatives) to construct minimal codes with a larger dimension. This method proves to be quite flexible since it can lead to several non-equivalent codes, depending exclusively on the choice of the underlying non-covering permutation.

###### Benjamin Case, Richa Jain, Alex Koshelev, Andy Leiserson, Daniel Masny, Ben Savage, Erik Taubeneck, Martin Thomson, Taiki Yamaguchi

ePrint Report
Measuring people’s interactions that span multiple websites can provide unique insight that enables better products and improves people’s experiences, but directly observing people’s individual journeys creates privacy risks that conflict with the newly emerging privacy model for the web. We propose a protocol that uses the combination of multi-party computation and differential privacy that enables the processing of peoples’ data such that only aggregate measurements are revealed, strictly limiting the information leakage about individual people. Our primary application of this protocol is measuring, in aggregate, the effectiveness of digital advertising without enabling cross-site tracking of individuals. In this paper we formalize our protocol, Interoperable Private Attribution (IPA), and analyze its security. IPA is proposed in the W3C’s Private Advertising Technology Community Group (PATCG) [8]. We have implemented our protocol in the malicious honest majority MPC setting for three parties where network costs dominate compute costs. For processing a query with 1M records it uses around 18GiB of network which at \$0.08 per GiB leads to a network cost of \$1.44.

###### Pierrick Dartois, Antonin Leroux, Damien Robert, Benjamin Wesolowski

ePrint Report
We introduce SQISignHD, a new post-quantum digital signature scheme inspired by SQISign.
SQISignHD exploits the recent algorithmic breakthrough underlying the attack on SIDH, which allows to efficiently represent isogenies of arbitrary degrees as components of a higher dimensional isogeny. SQISignHD overcomes the main drawbacks of SQISign. First, it scales well to high security levels, since the public parameters for SQISignHD are easy to generate: the characteristic of the underlying field needs only be of the form $2^{f}3^{f'}-1$. Second, the signing procedure is simpler and more efficient. Third, the scheme is easier to analyse, allowing for a much more compelling security reduction. Finally, the signature sizes are even more compact than (the already record-breaking) SQISign, with compressed signatures as small as 105 bytes for the post-quantum NIST-1 level of security.
These advantages may come at the expense of the verification, which now requires the computation of an isogeny in dimension $4$, a task whose optimised cost is still uncertain, as it has been the focus of very little attention.

###### Ky Nguyen, Duong Hieu Phan, David Pointcheval

ePrint Report
Research on (Decentralized) Multi-Client Functional Encryption (or (D)MCFE) is very active, with interesting constructions, especially for the class of inner products. However, the security notions have been evolving over the time. While the target of the adversary in distinguishing ciphertexts is clear, legitimate scenarios that do not consist of trivial attacks on the functionality are less obvious. In this paper, we wonder whether only trivial attacks are excluded from previous security games. And, unfortunately, this was not the case.
We then propose a stronger security notion, with a large definition of admissible attacks, and prove it is optimal: any extension of the set of admissible attacks is actually a trivial attack on the functionality, and not against the specific scheme. In addition, we show that all the previous constructions are insecure w.r.t. this new security notion. Eventually, we propose new DMCFE schemes for the class of inner products that provide the new features and achieve this stronger security notion.

###### Mirek Kutylowski, Giuseppe Persiano, Duong Hieu Phan, Moti Yung, Marcin Zawada

ePrint Report
s part of the responses to the ongoing ``crypto wars,'' the notion of {\em Anamorphic Encryption} was put forth [Persiano-Phan-Yung Eurocrypt '22].
The notion allows private communication in spite of a dictator who (in violation of the usual normative conditions under which Cryptography is developed) is engaged in an extreme form of surveillance and/or censorship, where it asks for all private keys and knows and may even dictate all messages.
The original work pointed out efficient ways to use two known schemes in the anamorphic mode, bypassing the draconian censorship and hiding information from the all-powerful dictator.
A question left open was whether these examples are outlier results or whether anamorphic mode is pervasive in existing systems.

Here we answer the above question: we develop new techniques, expand the notion, and show that the notion of Anamorphic Cryptography is, in fact, very much prevalent.

We first refine the notion of Anamorphic Encryption with respect to the nature of covert communication. Specifically, we distinguish {\em Single-Receiver Encryption} for many to one communication, and {\em Multiple-Receiver Encryption} for many to many communication within the group of conspiring (against the dictator) users. We then show that Anamorphic Encryption can be embedded in the randomness used in the encryption, and give families of constructions that can be applied to numerous ciphers. In total the families cover classical encryption schemes, some of which in actual use (RSA-OAEP, Pailler, Goldwasser-Micali, ElGamal schemes, Cramer-Shoup, and Smooth Projective Hash based systems). Among our examples is an anamorphic channel with much higher capacity than the regular channel. In sum, the work shows the very large extent of the potential futility of control and censorship over the use of strong encryption by the dictator (typical for and even stronger than governments engaging in the ongoing ``crypto-wars''): While such limitations obviously hurt utility which encryption typically brings to safety in computing systems, they essentially, are not helping the dictator. The actual implications of what we show here and what does it mean in practice require further policy and legal analyses and perspectives.

Here we answer the above question: we develop new techniques, expand the notion, and show that the notion of Anamorphic Cryptography is, in fact, very much prevalent.

We first refine the notion of Anamorphic Encryption with respect to the nature of covert communication. Specifically, we distinguish {\em Single-Receiver Encryption} for many to one communication, and {\em Multiple-Receiver Encryption} for many to many communication within the group of conspiring (against the dictator) users. We then show that Anamorphic Encryption can be embedded in the randomness used in the encryption, and give families of constructions that can be applied to numerous ciphers. In total the families cover classical encryption schemes, some of which in actual use (RSA-OAEP, Pailler, Goldwasser-Micali, ElGamal schemes, Cramer-Shoup, and Smooth Projective Hash based systems). Among our examples is an anamorphic channel with much higher capacity than the regular channel. In sum, the work shows the very large extent of the potential futility of control and censorship over the use of strong encryption by the dictator (typical for and even stronger than governments engaging in the ongoing ``crypto-wars''): While such limitations obviously hurt utility which encryption typically brings to safety in computing systems, they essentially, are not helping the dictator. The actual implications of what we show here and what does it mean in practice require further policy and legal analyses and perspectives.

###### Wissam Ghantous, Federico Pintore, Mattia Veroni

ePrint Report
In this note we assess the efficiency of a SIDH-based digital
signature built on a diminished variant of a recent identification protocol proposed by Basso et al. Despite the devastating attacks against the mathematical problem underlying SIDH, this identification protocol remains secure, as its security is backed by a different (and more standard) isogeny-finding problem.
We conduct our analysis by applying some known cryptographic techniques to decrease the signature size by about 70% for all parameter sets (obtaining signatures of approximately 21 KB for SIKEp434). Moreover, we propose a minor optimisation to compute many isogenies in parallel from the same starting curve. Our assessment confirms that the problem of designing a practical isogeny-based signature scheme remains largely open. However, concretely determine the current state of the art which future optimisations can compare to appears to be of relevance for a problem which has witnessed only small steps towards a solution.

###### Thomas Aulbach, Simona Samardjiska, Monika Trimoska

ePrint Report
This note describes a polynomial-time key-recovery attack on the UOV-based signature scheme called MQ-Sign. The scheme is a first-round candidate in the Korean Post-Quantum Cryptography Competition. Our attack exploits the sparsity of the secret central polynomials in combination with the specific structure of the secret linear map $S$. We provide a verification script that recovers the secret key in less than seven seconds for security level 5.

###### Pranav Shriram A, Nishat Koti, Varsha Bhat Kukkala, Arpita Patra, Bhavish Raj Gopal, Somya Sangal

ePrint Report
Secure shuffle is an important primitive that finds use in several applications such as secure electronic voting, oblivious RAMs, secure sorting, to name a few. For time-sensitive shuffle-based applications that demand a fast response time, it is essential to design a fast and efficient shuffle protocol. In this work, we design secure and fast shuffle protocols relying on the techniques of secure multiparty computation. We make several design choices that aid in achieving highly efficient protocols. Specifically, we consider malicious 3-party computation setting with an honest majority and design robust ring-based protocols. Our shuffle protocols provide a fast online (i.e., input-dependent) phase compared to the state-of-the-art for the considered setting.

To showcase the efficiency improvements brought in by our shuffle protocols, we consider two distinct applications of anonymous broadcast and secure graph computation via the GraphSC paradigm. In both cases, multiple shuffle invocations are required. Hence, going beyond standalone shuffle invocation, we identify two distinct scenarios of multiple invocations and provide customised protocols for the same. Further, we showcase that our customized protocols not only provide a fast response time, but also provide improved overall run time for multiple shuffle invocations. With respect to the applications, we not only improve in terms of efficiency, but also work towards providing improved security guarantees, thereby outperforming the respective state-of-the-art works. We benchmark our shuffle protocols and the considered applications to analyze the efficiency improvements with respect to various parameters.

To showcase the efficiency improvements brought in by our shuffle protocols, we consider two distinct applications of anonymous broadcast and secure graph computation via the GraphSC paradigm. In both cases, multiple shuffle invocations are required. Hence, going beyond standalone shuffle invocation, we identify two distinct scenarios of multiple invocations and provide customised protocols for the same. Further, we showcase that our customized protocols not only provide a fast response time, but also provide improved overall run time for multiple shuffle invocations. With respect to the applications, we not only improve in terms of efficiency, but also work towards providing improved security guarantees, thereby outperforming the respective state-of-the-art works. We benchmark our shuffle protocols and the considered applications to analyze the efficiency improvements with respect to various parameters.

###### Dustin Kern, Christoph Krauß, Timm Lauser, Nouri Alnahawi, Alexander Wiesmaier, Ruben Niederhagen

ePrint Report
ISO 15118 enables charging and billing of Electric Vehicles
(EVs) without user interaction by using locally installed cryptographic credentials that must be secure over the long lifetime of vehicles. In the dawn of quantum computers, Post-Quantum Cryptography (PQC) needs to be integrated into the EV charging infrastructure. In this paper, we propose QuantumCharge, a PQC extension for ISO 15118, which includes concepts for migration, crypto-agility, verifiable security, and the use of PQC-enabled hardware security modules. Our prototypical implementation and the practical evaluation demonstrate the feasibility, and our formal analysis shows the security of QuantumCharge, which thus paves the way for secure EV charging infrastructures of the future.

#### 26 March 2023

###### University of Surrey

Job Posting
We are looking for a research/senior research fellow for 2 years in the Surrey Centre for Cyber Security. The post is to conduct research in secure systems. The area of focus will be systems architectures and formal verification and the application area of interest is primarily systems that require the provision of authentication and attestation.
The centre is renowned for its security, distributed systems and verification research with leading publications, excellent links with industry and international standard bodies. It is an exiting time to join the centre as we are already working on research in the areas of passwordless authentication, swarm attestation and much more.

**Closing date for applications:**

**Contact:** Professor Helen Treharne (h.treharne@surrey.ac.uk)

**More information:** https://www.jobs.ac.uk/job/CYF414/research-fellow-senior-research-fellow-in-secure-systems