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16 January 2018
Event date: 27 August to 30 August 2018
Submission deadline: 1 April 2018
Notification: 27 May 2018
Event date: 27 August to 30 August 2018
Submission deadline: 16 March 2018
Notification: 30 May 2018
This paper presents two non-generic and practically efficient private key multi-input functional encryption (MIFE) schemes for the multi-input version of the inner product functionality that are the first to achieve simultaneous message and function privacy, namely, the full-hiding security for a non-trivial multi-input functionality under well-studied cryptographic assumptions. Our MIFE schemes are built in bilinear groups of prime order, and their security is based on the standard $k$-Linear ($k$-LIN) assumption (along with the existence of semantically secure symmetric key encryption and pseudorandom functions). Our constructions support polynomial number of encryption slots (inputs) without incurring any super-polynomial loss in the security reduction. While the number of encryption slots in our first scheme is apriori bounded, our second scheme can withstand an arbitrary number of encryption slots. Prior to our work, there was no known MIFE scheme for a non-trivial functionality, even without function privacy, that can support an unbounded number of encryption slots without relying on any heavy-duty building block or little-understood cryptographic assumption.
The recent advent of blockchains has spurred a huge interest in the research and development of numerous cryptocurrencies as well as understanding the fundamental concepts that underly this technology. At the heart of this design is the classic state machine replication protocol in which a group of n machines (out of which f are Byzantine) want to agree on an ever-growing log of transactions. In this paper, we present a simple black box reduction from state machine replication (SMR) to the classical binary agreement (BA) protocol on top of a fully decentralized network. We consider both synchronous and partially synchronous/asynchronous settings for our reduction. We also present an algorithm for a reduction from BA to SMR, thus establishing an equivalence between the two. In each of these settings, we analyze our algorithms with respect to the required security properties. Although there is prior work that establishes these reductions, our solutions are simpler (at the cost of efficiency) and useful from a pedagogical point of view.
Keccak is the final winner of SHA-3 competition and it can be used as message authentic codes as well. The basic and balanced divide-and-conquer attacks on Keccak-MAC were proposed by Dinur et al. at Eurocrypt 2015. The idea of cube attacks is used in the two attacks to divide key bits into small portions. In this paper, by carefully analysing the mappings used in Keccak-MAC, it is found that some cube variables could divide key bits into smaller portions and so better divide-and-conquer attacks are obtained. Furthermore, in order to evaluate the resistance of Keccak-MAC against divide-and-conquer attacks based on cubes, we theoretically analyse the lower bounds of the complexities of divide-and-conquer attacks. It is shown that the lower bounds of the complexities are still not better than those of the conditional cube tester proposed by Senyang Huang et al.. This indicates that Keccak-MAC can resist the divide-and-conquer attack better than the conditional cube tester. We hope that these techniques still could provide some new insights on the future cryptanalysis of Keccak.
Algebraic Manipulation Detection (AMD) codes [CDF+08] are keyless message authentication codes that protect messages against additive tampering by the adversary assuming that the adversary cannot “see" the codeword. For certain applications, it is unreasonable to assume that the adversary computes the added offset without any knowledge of the codeword c. Recently, Ahmadi and Safavi-Naini [AS13], and then Lin, Safavi-Naini, and Wang [LSW16] gave a construction of leakage-resilient AMD codes where the adversary has some partial information about the codeword before choosing added offset, and the scheme is secure even conditioned on this partial information. In this paper we show the bounds on the leakage rate r and the code rate k for leakage-resilient AMD codes. In particular we prove that 2r + k < 1 and for the weak case (security is averaged over a uniformly random message) r +k < 1. These bounds hold even if adversary is polynomial-time bounded, as long as we allow leakage function to be arbitrary. We present the constructions of AMD codes that (asymptotically) fulfill above bounds for almost full range of parameters r and k. This shows that above bounds and constructions are in-fact optimal. In the last section we show that if a leakage function is computationally bounded (we use Ideal Cipher Model) then it is possible to break these bounds.
ePrint Report Certifying RSA Public Keys with an Efficient NIZK Foteini Baldimtsi, Sharon Goldberg, Leonid Reyzin, Omar Sagga
In many applications, it is important to verify that an RSA public key (N,e) specifies a permutation, in order to prevent attacks due to adversarially-generated public keys. We design and implement a simple and efficient noninteractive zero-knowledge protocol (in the random oracle model) for this task. The key feature of our protocol is compatibility with existing RSA implementations and standards. The protocol works for any choice of e. Applications concerned about adversarial key generation can just append our proof to the RSA public key without any other modifications to existing code or cryptographic libraries. Users need only perform a one-time verification of the proof to ensure that raising to the power e is a permutation of the integers modulo N. For typical parameter settings, the proof consists of nine integers modulo N; generating the proof and verifying it both require about nine modular exponentiations.
In data security, the main objectives one tries to achieve are privacy, data integrity and authentication. In a public-key setting, privacy is reached through asymmetric encryption and both data integrity and authentication through signature. Meeting all the security objectives for data exchange requires to use a concatenation of those primitives in an encrypt-then-sign or sign-then-encrypt fashion. Signcryption aims at providing all the security requirements in one single primitive at a lower cost than using encryption and signature together. Most existing signcryption schemes are using ElGamal-based or pairing-based techniques and thus rely on the decisional Diffie-Hellman assumption. With the current growth of a quantum threat, we seek for post-quantum counterparts to a vast majority of public-key primitives. In this work, we propose a signcryption scheme based on the GLP signature inspired from a construction of Malone-Lee. It comes in two flavors, one integrating the usual lattice-based key exchange into GLP and the other merging the signature scheme with a RLWE encryption, which is more efficient, but outputs a larger signcryptext. Using the same set of operations as in existing constructions, our scheme can be implemented efficiently on various platforms, reusing optimized pieces of software or hardware presented in previous works.
ePrint Report High-Resolution EM Attacks Against Leakage-Resilient PRFs Explained - And An Improved Construction Florian Unterstein, Johann Heyszl, Fabrizio De Santis, Robert Specht, Georg Sigl
Achieving side-channel resistance through Leakage Resilience (LR) is highly relevant for embedded devices where requirements of other countermeasures such as e.g. high quality random numbers are hard to guarantee. The main challenge of LR lays in the initialization of a secret pseudorandom state from a long-term key and public input. Leakage-Resilient Pseudo-Random Functions (LR-PRFs) aim at solving this by bounding side-channel leakage to non-exploitable levels through frequent re-keying. Medwed et al. recently presented an improved construction at ASIACRYPT 2016 which uses 'unknown-inputs' in addition to limited data complexity and correlated algorithmic noise from parallel S-boxes. However, a subsequent investigation uncovered a vulnerability to high-precision EM analysis on FPGA. In this paper, we follow up on the reasons why such attacks succeed on FPGAs. We find that in addition to the high spatial resolution, it is mainly the high temporal resolution which leads to the reduction of algorithmic noise from parallel S-boxes. While spatial resolution is less threatening for smaller technologies than the used FPGA, temporal resolution will likely remain an issue since balancing the timing behavior of signals in the nanosecond range seems infeasible today. Nonetheless, we present an improvement of the ASIACRYPT 2016 construction to effectively protect against EM attacks with such high spatial and high temporal resolution. We carefully introduce additional key entropy into the LR-PRF construction to achieve a high remaining security level even when implemented on FPGAs. With this improvement, we finally achieve side-channel secure LR-PRFs in a practical and simple way under verifiable empirical assumptions.
We provide a structure-preserving signature (SPS) scheme with an (almost) tight security reduction to a standard assumption. Compared to the state-of-the-art tightly secure SPS scheme of Abe et al. (CRYPTO 2017), our scheme has smaller signatures and public keys (of about \(56\%\), resp. \(40\%\) of the size of signatures and public keys in Abe et al.'s scheme), and a lower security loss (of \(O(\log Q)\) instead of \(O(\lambda)\), where \(\lambda\) is the security parameter, and \(Q=poly(\lambda)\) is the number of adversarial signature queries).

While our scheme is still less compact than structure-preserving signature schemes \emph{without} tight security reduction, it significantly lowers the price to pay for a tight security reduction. In fact, when accounting for a non-tight security reduction with larger key (i.e., group) sizes, the computational efficiency of our scheme becomes at least comparable to that of non-tightly secure SPS schemes. Technically, we combine and refine recent existing works on tightly secure encryption and SPS schemes. Our technical novelties include a modular treatment (that develops an SPS scheme out of a basic message authentication code), and a refined hybrid argument that enables a lower security loss of \(O(\log Q)\) (instead of \(O(\lambda)\)).
15 January 2018
Job Posting Postdoc University College London
Applications are invited for a postdoc position in the Information Security group at UCL, to be supervised by Sarah Meiklejohn. The successful candidate will research the security, systems, and cryptographic aspects of distributed ledgers ("blockchains"), with the goal of making them more versatile, scalable, and privacy-friendly. Applications must include a CV and a short research statement, and candidates are expected to have published in top security and/or cryptography venues.

Closing date for applications: 12 February 2018

Contact: Sarah Meiklejohn, s.meiklejohn (at) ucl.ac.uk

More information: https://atsv7.wcn.co.uk/search_engine/jobs.cgi?owner=5041404&ownertype=fair&jcode=1707556&vt_template=965&adminview=1

Applications are invited for tenure-track and tenured faculty positions in all areas related to cybersecurity, privacy, and cryptography.

A doctoral degree in computer science or related areas and an outstanding research track record are required. Applicants are expected to pursue an internationally visible research agenda and to build up their research team. Candidates for senior positions must be internationally renowned scientists.

The cybersecurity research center CISPA – Helmholtz Center i.G. provides a unique work environment that offers the advantages of a university department and a research laboratory alike: Faculty will be offered highly competitive research salaries and institutional funding; they enjoy academic freedom, and build and lead their team of PhD students and postdocs; they attract additional third-party funds, supervise doctoral theses, and are granted the opportunity to teach graduate and undergraduate courses. CISPA moreover offers outstanding technical infrastructure and administrative support.

CISPA is located in Saarbruecken, in the tri-border area of Germany, France, and Luxembourg. We maintain an international and diverse work environment and seek applications from outstanding researchers worldwide. The working language is English.

All applicants are strongly encouraged to submit their complete application by February 10, 2018 for full consideration. However, applications will continue to be accepted until February 28, 2018.

Qualified candidates should apply using the secure application form .

In case of any questions, please contact CISPA’s director Michael Backes at backes (at) cispa.saarland .

CISPA values diversity and is committed to equality. We provide special support for dual-career couples . Female researchers are encouraged to apply.

For more information about CISPA, see https://cispa.saarland

For further information about the Helmholtz Association, please refer to the official webpage or Wikipedia .

Closing date for applications: 28 February 2018

Contact: In case of any questions, please contact CISPA’s director Michael Backes at backes (at) cispa.saarland or Stephanie Boecker at boecker (at) cispa.saarland

More information: https://cispa.saarland/career/positions/faculty/

Job Posting PhD interns on cyber-physical system security Singapore University of Technology and Design (SUTD), Singapore
Singapore University of Technology and Design (SUTD) is a young university which was established in collaboration with MIT. iTrust is a Cyber Security Research Center with about 15 inter-disciplinary faculty members from SUTD. It has the world\'s best facilities in cyber-physical systems (CPS) including testbeds for Secure Water Treatment (SWaT), Water Distribution (WADI), Electric Power and Intelligent Control (EPIC), and IoT. (See more info at https://itrust.sutd.edu.sg/research/testbeds/.)

I am looking for PhD interns with interest in cyber-physical system security (IoT, water, power grid, transportation, and autonomous vehicle etc.). The attachment will be at least 3 months. Allowance will be provided for local expenses.

Interested candidates please send your CV with a research statement to Prof. Jianying Zhou.

Contact: Prof. Jianying Zhou

Email: jianying_zhou (at) sutd.edu.sg

Closing date for applications: 31 March 2018

Contact: Prof. Jianying Zhou

More information: http://jianying.space/

Event date: 19 May to 25 May 2018
Submission deadline: 17 February 2018
14 January 2018
ePrint Report Study of Deep Learning Techniques for Side-Channel Analysis and Introduction to ASCAD Database Emmanuel Prouff, Remi Strullu, Ryad Benadjila, Eleonora Cagli, Cecile Dumas
To provide insurance on the resistance of a system against side-channel analysis, several national or private schemes are today promoting an evaluation strategy, common in classical cryptography, which is focussing on the most powerful adversary who may train to learn about the dependency between the device behaviour and the sensitive data values. Several works have shown that this kind of analysis, known as Template Attacks in the side-channel domain, can be rephrased as a classical Machine Learning classification problem with learning phase. Following the current trend in the latter area, recent works have demonstrated that deep learning algorithms were very efficient to conduct security evaluations of embedded systems and had many advantage compared to the other methods. Unfortunately, their hyper-parametrization has often been kept secret by the authors who only discussed on the main design principles and on the attack efficiencies. This is clearly an important limitation of previous works since (1) the latter parametrization is known to be a challenging question in Machine Learning and (2) it does not allow for the reproducibility of the presented results. This paper aims to address theses limitations in several ways. First, completing recent works, we propose a comprehensive study of deep learning algorithms when applied in the context of side-channel analysis and we clarify the links with the classical template attacks. Secondly, we address the question of the choice of the hyper-parameters for the class of multi-layer perceptron networks and convolutional neural networks. Several benchmarks and rationales are given in the context of the analysis of a masked implementation of the AES algorithm. To enable perfect reproducibility of our tests, this work also introduces an open platform including all the sources of the target implementation together with the campaign of electro-magnetic measurements exploited in our benchmarks. This open database, named ASCAD, has been specified to serve as a common basis for further works on this subject. Our work confirms the conclusions made by Cagli et al. at CHES 2017 about the high potential of convolutional neural networks. Interestingly, it shows that the approach followed to design the algorithm VGG-16 used for image recognition seems also to be sound when it comes to fix an architecture for side-channel analysis.
ePrint Report Optimizing Trees for Static Searchable Encryption Mohammad Etemad, Mohammad Mahmoody, David Evans
Searchable symmetric encryption (SSE) enables data owners to conduct searches over encrypted data stored by an untrusted server, retrieving only those encrypted files that match the search queries. Several recent schemes employ a server-side encrypted index in the form of a search tree where each node stores a bit vector denoting for each keyword whether any file in its subtree contains that keyword. Our work is motivated by the observation that the way data is distributed in such a search tree has a big impact on the cost of searches. For single-keyword queries, it impacts the number of different paths that must be followed to find all the matching files; for multi-keyword queries, the arrangement of the tree also impacts the number of nodes visited during the search on paths that do not lead to any satisfying data elements. We present three algorithms that improve the performance of SSE schemes based on tree indexes and prove that for cases where the search cost is high, the cost of our algorithms converges to the cost of the optimal tree. In our experiments, the resulting search trees outperform the arbitrary search trees used in previous works by a factor of up to two
A game-based cryptographic proof is a relation that establishes equivalence between probabilistic sequences of actions by real and ideal world players. The author of a proof selects a hardness assumption system for their proof upon which to base their subsequent statements. In this paper, we prove the existence of proof-invariant transformations for varying hardness assumptions. We show that for two systems satisfying certain algebraic properties any proof in one system has an equivalent valid proof in the other. This validates Kurosawa’s remark about the existence of proof similarities.

Our result implies a correspondence between the Learning With Errors (LWE) problems and both the Elliptic Curve Discrete Log problem (ECDLP) and the Discrete Logarithm (DLOG) problem. To illustrate this result, we provide a series of example transformations in the appendix. The concrete result of this paper is a prototype proof translation tool.
ePrint Report A Constructive Perspective on Signcryption Security Christian Badertscher, Fabio Banfi, Ueli Maurer
Signcryption is a public-key cryptographic primitive, originally introduced by Zheng (Crypto '97), that allows parties to establish secure communication without the need of prior key agreement. Instead, a party registers its public key at a certificate authority (CA), and only needs to retrieve the public key of the intended partner from the CA before being able to protect the communication. As suggested by the name, signcryption schemes provide both authenticity and confidentiality of sent messages and are motivated like their symmetric-key counterparts, i.e., authenticated-encryption schemes: better achievable performance compared to generic compositions of signature and encryption schemes, and a simpler interface to applications.

Although introduced two decades ago, the question which security notions of signcryption are adequate in what applications has still not reached a fully satisfying answer, even for the basic ones. To address this question, we conduct a constructive analysis of this public-key primitive. Similar to previous constructive studies for other important primitives, this treatment allows to identify the natural goal that signcryption schemes should achieve and to formalize this goal in a composable language. More specifically, we capture the goal of signcryption as a gracefully-degrading secure network, which is basically a network of independent parties that allows secure communication between any two parties. However, when a party is compromised, its respective security guarantees are lost, while all guarantees for the remaining users stay unaffected. We show which security notions are sufficient to realize this kind of secure network from a certificate authority (or key registration resource) and insecure communication. As a finding of independent interest, our treatment shows that a weaker notion of the traditional insider security notion is actually sufficient.

Last but not least, our study unveils that the graceful-degradation property is actually an essential feature of signcryption that separates it from alternative and more natural constructions that achieve a secure network from the same assumptions. This shows the vital importance of the insider security notion for signcryption and strongly supports, in contrast to the initial belief, the recent trend to consider the insider security notion as the standard notion for signcryption.
In the traditional symmetric cryptography, the adversary has access only to the inputs and outputs of a cryptographic primitive. In the white-box model the adversary is given full access to the implementation. He can use both static and dynamic analysis as well as fault analysis in order to break the cryptosystem, e.g. to extract embedded secret key. Implementations secure in such model have many applications in industry. However, creating such implementations turns out to be a very challenging if not an impossible task.

Recently, Bos et al. proposed a generic attack on white-box primitives called differential computation analysis (DCA). This attack applies to most existent whitebox implementations both from academia and industry. The attack comes from side-channel cryptanalysis method. The most common method protecting against such side-channel attacks is masking. Therefore, masking can be used in white-box implementations to protect against the DCA attack. In this paper we investigate this possibility and present multiple generic attacks against masked white-box implementations. We use the term “masking” in a very broad sense. As a result, we deduce new constraints that any secure white-box implementation must satisfy. We suggest partial countermeasures against the attacks.

Some of our attacks were successfully applied to the WhibOx 2017 challenges.
ePrint Report Impossible Differential Cryptanalysis on Deoxys-BC-256 Alireza mehrdad, Farokhlagha Moazami, Hadi Soleimany
Deoxys is a third-round candidate of the CAESAR competition. This paper presents the first impossible differential cryptanalysis of Deoxys-BC-256 which is used in Deoxys as an internal tweakable block cipher. First, we find a 4.5-round ID characteristic by utilizing a miss-in-the-middle-approach. We then present several cryptanalyses based upon the 4.5 rounds distinguisher against round-reduced Deoxys-BC-256 in both single-key and related-key settings. Our contributions include impossible differential attacks on up to 8-rounds Deoxys-BC-256 in the tweak-key model which is, to the best of our knowledge, the first independent investigation of the security of Deoxys-BC-256 in the single-key model. Our attack reaches 9 rounds in the related-key related-tweak model which has a slightly higher data complexity than the best previous results obtained by a rectangle attack presented at FSE 2018 but requires a lower memory complexity with an equal time complexity.
The purpose of the work is to estimate the resistance of lightweight block ciphers Speck, Simon, Simeck, HIGHT, LEA to a distinguishing attack. (This attack is a form of cryptanalysis on data encrypted by a cipher that allows an attacker to distinguish the encrypted data from random data.) Modern lightweight block ciphers must be designed to be immune to such an attack. It turned out that Speck, Simon, HIGHT and LEA showed a sufficient resistance to the distinguishing attack, but Simeck with 48-bit block size and 96-bit key size was not immune to this attack.
10 January 2018
Event Calendar CBC 2018: The sixth Code-Based Cryptography Workshop Davie, Florida, United Stated, 5 April - 6 April 2018
Event date: 5 April to 6 April 2018
Submission deadline: 15 February 2018
ePrint Report Scalable, transparent, and post-quantum secure computational integrity Eli Ben-Sasson, Iddo Bentov, Yinon Horesh, Michael Riabzev
Human dignity demands that personal information, like medical and forensic data, be hidden from the public. But veils of secrecy designed to preserve privacy may also be abused to cover up lies and deceit by parties entrusted with Data, unjustly harming citizens and eroding trust in central institutions.

Zero knowledge (ZK) proof systems are an ingenious cryptographic solution to the tension between the ideals of personal privacy and institutional integrity, enforcing the latter in a way that does not compromise the former. Public trust demands transparency from ZK systems, meaning they be set up with no reliance on any trusted party, and have no trapdoors that could be exploited by powerful parties to bear false witness. For ZK systems to be used with Big Data, it is imperative that the public verification process scale sublinearly in data size. Transparent ZK proofs that can be verified exponentially faster than data size were first described in the 1990s but early constructions were impractical, and no ZK system realized thus far in code (including that used by crypto-currencies like Zcash) has achieved both transparency and exponential verification speedup, simultaneously, for general computations.

Here we report the first realization of a transparent ZK system (ZK-STARK) in which verification scales exponentially faster than database size, and moreover, this exponential speedup in verification is observed concretely for meaningful and sequential computations, described next. Our system uses several recent advances on interactive oracle proofs (IOP), such as a “fast” (linear time) IOP system for error correcting codes.

Our proof-of-concept system allows the Police to prove to the public that the DNA profile of a Presidential Candidate does not appear in the forensic DNA profile database maintained by the Police. The proof, which is generated by the Police, relies on no external trusted party, and reveals no further information about the contents of the database, nor about the candidate’s profile; in particular, no DNA information is disclosed to any party outside the Police. The proof is shorter than the size of the DNA database, and verified faster than the time needed to examine that database naively.
The work of Bootle et al. (EUROCRYPT 2016) constructs an extremely efficient zero-knowledge argument for arithmetic circuit satisfiability in the discrete logarithm setting. However, the argument does not treat relations involving commitments, and furthermore, for simple polynomial relations, the complex machinery employed is unnecessary.

In this work, we give a framework for expressing simple relations between commitments and field elements, and present a zero-knowledge argument which is considerably more efficient than Bootle et al. in the case where the polynomials in the relation have low degree. Our method also directly yields a batch protocol, which allows many copies of the same relation to be more efficiently proved and verified in a single argument.

We instantiate our protocol with concrete polynomial relations to construct zero-knowledge arguments for membership proofs, polynomial evaluation proofs, and range proofs. Our work can be seen as a unified explanation of the underlying ideas of these protocols. In some of these instantiations we also achieve better efficiency than the state of the art.
The hardness of the shortest vector problem for lattices is a fundamental assumption underpinning the security of many lattice-based cryptosystems, and therefore, it is important to evaluate its difficulty. Here, recent advances in studying the hardness of problems in large-scale lattice computing have pointed to need to study the design and methodology for exploiting the performance of massive parallel computing environments. In this paper, we propose a lattice basis reduction algorithm suitable for massive parallelization. Our parallelization strategy is an extension of the Fukase-Kashiwabara algorithm~(J. Information Processing, Vol. 23, No. 1, 2015). In our algorithm, given a lattice basis as input, variants of the lattice basis are generated, and then each process reduces its lattice basis; at this time, the processes cooperate and share auxiliary information with each other to accelerate lattice basis reduction. In addition, we propose a new strategy based on our evaluation function of a lattice basis in order to decrease the sum of squared lengths of orthogonal basis vectors. We applied our algorithm to problem instances from the SVP Challenge. We solved a 150-dimension problem instance in about 394 days by using large clusters, and we also solved problem instances of dimensions 134, 138, 140, 142, 144, 146, and 148. Since the previous world record is the problem of dimension 132, these results demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposal.
ePrint Report Efficient Adaptively Secure Zero-knowledge from Garbled Circuits Chaya Ganesh, Yashvanth Kondi , Arpita Patra, Pratik Sarkar
Zero-knowledge (ZK) protocols are undoubtedly among the central primitives in cryptography, lending their power to numerous applications such as secure computation, voting, auctions, and anonymous credentials to name a few. The study of efficient ZK protocols for non-algebraic statements has seen rapid progress in recent times, relying on the techniques from secure computation. The primary contribution of this work lies in constructing efficient UC-secure constant round ZK protocols from garbled circuits that are secure against $adaptive$ corruptions, with communication linear in the size of the statement. We begin by showing that the practically efficient ZK protocol of Jawurek et al. (CCS 2013) is adaptively secure when the underlying oblivious transfer (OT) satisfies a mild adaptive security guarantee. We gain adaptive security with little to no overhead over the static case. A conditional verification technique is then used to obtain a three-round adaptively secure zero-knowledge argument in the non-programmable random oracle model (NPROM).

We draw motivation from state-of-the-art non-interactive secure computation protocols and leveraging specifics of ZK functionality show a two-round protocol that achieves static security. It is a proof, while most known efficient ZK protocols and our three round protocol are only arguments.
Structure Preserving Signatures (SPS) allow the signatures and the messages signed to be further encrypted while retaining the ability to be proven valid under zero-knowledge. In particular, SPS are tailored to have structure suitable for Groth-Sahai NIZK proofs. More precisely, the messages, signatures, and verification keys are required to be elements of groups that support efficient bilinear-pairings (bilinear groups), and the signature verification consists of just evaluating one or more bilinear-pairing product equations. Since Groth-Sahai NIZK proofs can (with zero-knowledge) prove the validity of such pairing product equations, it leads to interesting applications such as blind signatures, group signatures, traceable signatures, group encryption, and delegatable credential systems.

In this paper, we further improve on the SPS scheme of Abe, Hofheinz, Nishimaki, Ohkubo and Pan (CRYPTO 2017) while maintaining only an $O(\lambda)$-factor security reduction loss to the SXDH assumption. In particular, we compress the size of the signatures by almost 40%, and reduce the number of pairing-product equations in the verifier from fifteen to seven. Recall that structure preserving signatures are used in applications by encrypting the messages and/or the signatures, and hence these optimizations are further amplified as proving pairing-product equations in Groth-Sahai NIZK system is not frugal. While our scheme uses an important novel technique introduced by Hofheinz (EuroCrypt 2017), i.e., structure-preserving adaptive partitioning, our approach to building the signature scheme is different and this leads to the optimizations mentioned. Thus we make progress towards an open problem stated by Abe et al (CRYPTO 2017) to design more compact SPS-es with smaller number of group elements.
9 January 2018

Whenever you communicate with someone electronically there are intermediaries that process and carry your communication, helping it reliably get to the intended destination, or storing it until the recipient goes online to collect it. We hope that these intermediaries behave properly, but sometimes they get hacked, or the people running them act maliciously, and your communications can then be tampered with and eavesdropped, with potentially severe consequences.

End-to-end encryption is designed to protect against such threats and has been available for decades, but it’s still rarely used because it interferes with modern ways of working. For example, if the company that provides your email service can’t read it, you can’t search it without downloading it all; with collaboration applications, like Google Docs or chat applications, current end-to-end encryption approaches won\'t even work. Even if data is encrypted end-to-end, analysis of the meta-data can still violate privacy, for example disclosing who is working with whom. Anonymous communication systems like Tor can help protect meta-data but the delay that the most secure systems (e.g. Loopix) introduce would prevent standard collaboration technologies from working properly.

This project will develop techniques to build collaboration applications that are end-to-end secure, and protect privacy. We will quantify how secure and effective they are, working with investigative journalists who need high levels of security in their collaboration applications.

Funding is available for a 4-year PhD studentship working on this project, providing a standard stipend and fees (at UK/EU rate). The project will be supervised by Dr Steven Murdoch and will start in October 2018 (unless agreed otherwise).

Closing date for applications: 27 April 2018

Contact: Steven Murdoch (s.murdoch (at) ucl.ac.uk)

More information: http://www.cs.ucl.ac.uk/prospective_students/phd_programme/funded_scholarships/#c31028

Job Posting Funded Ph.D. student positions Computer Engineering, University of South Florida
Ph.D. student positions are available starting Fall 2018 (all documents submitted soon) to work on different aspects of Cryptographic Engineering in the CSE department at USF.

USF is an R1 university and among the leading institutions in Florida. We are looking for motivated, talented, and hardworking applicants who have background and are interested in working on different aspects of Cryptographic Engineering with emphasis on:

- Cryptographic hardware systems

- Side-channel attacks, particularly fault and power analysis attacks

The required expertise includes:

- Masters (or Bachelors with outstanding background) in Computer Engineering or Electrical Engineering

- Solid background in digital design, VLSI, computer arithmetic, and ASIC/FPGA implementations

- Solid HDL expertise

- Outstanding English (if English tests are taken) to be eligible for department funding

- Motivation to work beyond the expectations from an average Ph.D. student and publish in top tier venues

Please closely observe the admission requirement details here before emailing:

http://www.usf.edu/engineering/cse/graduate/phd-program.aspx

Please send me your updated CV (including list of publications, language test marks, and references), transcripts for B.Sc. (and/or M.Sc.), and a statement of interest at mehran2 (at) usf.edu as soon as possible.

NOTE: At this time, I consider only the applicants who have already taken TOEFL/IELTS and GRE exams with excellent marks. The successful candidate will be asked to apply formally very soon to the USF CSE department, so all the material has to be ready.

Mehran Mozaffari-Kermani

Assistant Professor, CSE @ USF

College of Engineering

University of South Florida

Tampa, FL 33620

Website: http://www.csee.usf.edu/~mehran2/

Contact: Mehran Mozaffari-Kermani

Closing Date for Applications: 2018-02-01

Closing date for applications: 15 February 2018

Job Posting Ph.D. scholarship (4 years) University College Cork, Ireland

University College Cork (UCC) and the China Scholarship Council (CSC) have an agreement to jointly fund a number of PhD scholarships. The scholarship will support Chinese students willing to undertake a PhD in UCC for up to 4 years, including payment of registration and tuition fees, a monthly living allowance and a return ticket.

The Department of Computer Science in UCC is particularly interested in hosting PhD students in the areas of cryptography, privacy, and security. Topics of particular interest are cryptographic protocols, privacy-enhancing technologies, and location privacy, but all proposals relevant to security will be considered. Interested candidates are encouraged to contact Dr. Paolo Palmieri (e-mail address below) to discuss a potential application.

University College Cork (UCC) is an internationally competitive, research-led institution. Cork, Ireland\'s second-largest city, is a thriving, international hub for technological innovation, hosting companies such as Apple, Amazon, EMC, IBM and McAfee.

Please note that, due to eligibility requirements, this opportunity is restricted to Chinese nationals.

Closing date for applications: 31 January 2018

Contact: Dr. Paolo Palmieri, Lecturer in Cyber Security, UCC

E-mail: p.palmieri (at) cs.ucc.ie

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