International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

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18 January 2022

Weikeng Chen, Thang Hoang, Jorge Guajardo, Attila A. Yavuz
ePrint Report ePrint Report
End-to-end encrypted file-sharing systems enable users to share files without revealing the file contents to the storage servers. However, the servers still learn metadata, including user identities and access patterns. Prior work tried to remove such leakage but relied on strong assumptions. Metal (NDSS '20) is not secure against malicious servers. MCORAM (ASIACRYPT '20) provides confidentiality against malicious servers, but not integrity.

Titanium is a metadata-hiding file-sharing system that offers confidentiality and integrity against malicious users and servers. Compared with MCORAM, which offers confidentiality against malicious servers, Titanium also offers integrity. Experiments show that Titanium is 5x-200x faster or more than MCORAM.
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Asep Muhamad Awaludin, Harashta Tatimma Larasati, Howon Kim
ePrint Report ePrint Report
In this paper, we present a high-speed, unified elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) processor for arbitrary Weierstrass curves over GF(p), which to the best of our knowledge, outperforms other similar works in terms of execution time. Our approach employs the combination of the schoolbook long and Karatsuba multiplication algorithm for the elliptic curve point multiplication (ECPM) to achieve better parallelization while retaining low complexity. In the hardware implementation, the substantial gain in speed is also contributed by our n-bit pipelined Montgomery Modular Multiplier (pMMM), which is constructed from our n-bit pipelined multiplier-accumulators that utilizes digital signal processor (DSP) primitives as digit multipliers. Additionally, we also introduce our unified, pipelined modular adder-subtractor (pMAS) for the underlying field arithmetic, and leverage a more efficient yet compact scheduling of the Montgomery ladder algorithm. The implementation for 256-bit modulus size on the 7-series FPGA: Virtex-7, Kintex-7, and XC7Z020 yields 0.139, 0.138, and 0.206 ms of execution time, respectively. Furthermore, since our pMMM module is generic for any curve in Weierstrass form, we support multi-curve parameters, resulting in a unified ECC architecture. Lastly, our method also works in constant time, making it suitable for applications requiring high speed and SCA-resistant characteristics.
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Maria Eichlseder, Ahmet Can Mert, Christian Rechberger, Markus Schofnegger
ePrint Report ePrint Report
The concept of lightweight cryptography has gained in popularity recently, also due to various competitions and standardization efforts specifically targeting more efficient algorithms, which are also easier to implement.

One of the important properties of lightweight constructions is the area of a hardware implementation, or in other words, the size of the implementation in a particular environment. Reducing the area usually has multiple advantages like decreased production cost or lower power consumption.

In this paper, we focus on MAC functions and on ASIC implementations in hardware, and our goal is to minimize the area requirements in this setting. For this purpose, we design a new MAC scheme based on the well-known Pelican MAC function. However, in an effort to reduce the size of the implementation, we make use of smaller internal permutations. While this certainly leads to a higher internal collision probability, effectively reducing the allowed data, we show that the full security is still maintained with respect to other attacks, in particular forgery and key recovery attacks. This is useful in scenarios which do not require large amounts of data.

Our detailed estimates, comparisons, and concrete benchmark results show that our new MAC scheme has the lowest area requirements and offers competitive performance. Indeed, we observe an area advantage of up to 30% in our estimated comparisons, and an advantage of around 13% compared to the closest competitor in a concrete implementation.
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17 January 2022

University of Cape Town
Job Posting Job Posting
The School of Economics in the Faculty of Commerce at the University of Cape Town is inviting applications for PhD students and Postdoctoral Research Fellows. The overarching theme of the fellowships is “the data economy” and students and recent graduates with a background in economics, computer science, mathematics, finance, and related disciplines are invited to apply. Any of the following research areas ar of particular interest: The economics of privacy Privacy-preserving technology Data marketplaces The economics of innovation Successful applicants will work within a research group that strives for academic excellence and is interested in various aspects of data ownership, from analyzing its theoretical foundation in the economics of property rights and privacy, to developing practical tools and studying existing applications. In this context, open source software, artistic work, and scholarly research are three examples where at least a weak notion of data ownership can be studied. Applications open now and are considered on a rolling basis until 30 April or until the positions are filled. Appointments are for as soon as is feasible. The tenure of the Postdoctoral fellowship is for up to three years, while the tenure for PhD positions is usually three years, but can be extended for up to five years. Due to the ongoing pandemic, successful applicants can choose to work remotely in 2022. Postdoctoral fellows receive a fellowship of R350,000 per annum and no benefits are included in the value of the fellowship. An additional travel allowance of R30,000 p.a. is available for successful applicants. The successful applicant will be required to comply with the University’s approved policies, procedures and practices for the postdoctoral sector. PhD students receive a fellowship of R210,000 p.a. and an additional travel allowance of R20,000 p.a. in addition to access to university-wide funding for conference travel. We typically arrange for PhD students to spend at least one semester at a leading international university and help organize an internship at a leading international policy institution or fintech company.

Closing date for applications:

Contact: anda.ngcaba@uct.ac.za co-pierre.georg@uct.ac.za

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University of Edinburgh
Job Posting Job Posting
The position is with the Security and Privacy group, part of the School of Informatics at The University of Edinburgh. The Security and Privacy group carries out research on all aspects of security and privacy, including applied and theoretical cryptography, software security, systems and hardware security, human factors, protocol analysis, verification and quantum/post-quantum cryptography. The successful candidate will have a PhD (or be near to completion); experience as an established researcher in one or more areas of security and privacy including but not limited to cryptography, database security, distributed systems security, hardware security, Internet of Things (IoT) security, network security, systems security; enthusiasm to undertake original research including leading a research group; the ability to engage with undergraduate and postgraduate teaching and academic supervision; and the ability to be involved in enhancing eLearning security initiatives.

Closing date for applications:

Contact: Aggelos Kiayias

More information: https://elxw.fa.em3.oraclecloud.com/hcmUI/CandidateExperience/en/sites/CX_1001/job/2980/?utm_medium=jobshare

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16 January 2022

P. Dusart, G. Letourneux, O. Vivolo
ePrint Report ePrint Report
We explain how a differential fault analysis (DFA) works on AES 128, 192 or 256 bits.
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14 January 2022

Nadia Heninger
ePrint Report ePrint Report
This book chapter outlines techniques for breaking cryptography by taking advantage of implementation mistakes made in practice, with a focus on those that exploit the mathematical structure of the most widely used public-key primitives.
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Stefano Tessaro, Chenzhi Zhu
ePrint Report ePrint Report
This paper proposes the first practical pairing-free three-move blind signature schemes that (1) are concurrently secure, (2) produce short signatures (i.e., three or four group elements/scalars), and (3) are provably secure either in the generic group model (GGM) or the algebraic group model (AGM) under the (plain or one-more) discrete logarithm assumption (beyond additionally assuming random oracles). We also propose a partially blind version of one of our schemes. Our schemes do not rely on the hardness of the ROS problem (which can be broken in polynomial time) or of the mROS problem (which admits sub-exponential attacks). The only prior work with these properties is Abe’s signature scheme (EUROCRYPT ’02), which was recently proved to be secure in the AGM by Kastner et al. (PKC ’22), but which also produces signatures twice as long as those from our scheme. The core of our proofs of security is a new problem, called weighted fractional ROS (WFROS), for which we prove (unconditional) exponential lower bounds.
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Keita Emura, Kaisei Kajita, Ryo Nojima, Kazuto Ogawa, Go Ohtake
ePrint Report ePrint Report
The Signal protocol is a secure messaging protocol providing end-to-end encrypted asynchronous communication. In this paper, we focus on a method capable of hiding membership information from the viewpoint of non group members in a secure group messaging (SGM) protocol, which we call "membership privacy''. Although Chase et al. (ACM CCS 2020) have considered the same notion, their proposal is an extension of Signal so called "Pairwise Signal'' where a group message is repeatedly sent over individual Signal channels. Thus their protocol is not scalable. In this work, we extend the Cohn-Gordon et al. SGM protocol (ACM CCS 2018), which we call the Asynchronous Ratcheting Trees (ART) protocol, to add membership privacy. We employ a key-private and robust public-key encryption (Abdalla et al., TCC2010/JoC2018) for hiding membership-related values in the setup phase. Furthermore, we concentrate on the fact that a group common key provides anonymity. This fact is used to encrypt membership information in the key update phase. Our extension does not affect the forward secrecy and post-compromise security of the original ART protocol. Although the efficiency of each user in the setup phase is worsened, the setup phase is run only once, and it seems to be acceptable. Any additional cost for key update does not depend on the number of group members (specifically, one encryption and decryption of a symmetric key-encryption scheme and one execution of a key-derivation function for each key update are employed). Therefore, the proposed protocol can add membership privacy to the ART protocol with a quite small overhead.
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Dahmun Goudarzi, Thomas Prest, Matthieu Rivain, Damien Vergnaud
ePrint Report ePrint Report
The probing security model is widely used to formally prove the security of masking schemes. Whenever a masked implementation can be proven secure in this model with a reasonable \emph{leakage rate}, it is also provably secure in a realistic leakage model known as the \emph{noisy leakage model}. This paper introduces a new framework for the composition of probing-secure circuits. We introduce the security notion of \emph{input-output separation} (IOS) for a refresh gadget. From this notion, one can easily compose gadgets satisfying the classical probing security notion --which does not ensure composability on its own-- to obtain a \emph{region probing secure} circuit. Such a circuit is secure against an adversary placing up to $t$ probes in each gadget composing the circuit, which ensures a tight reduction to the more realistic noisy leakage model. After introducing the notion and proving our composition theorem, we compare our approach to the composition approaches obtained with the (Strong) Non-Interference (S/NI) notions as well as the Probe-Isolating Non-Interference (PINI) notion. We further show that any uniform SNI gadget achieves the IOS security notion, while the converse is not true. We further describe a refresh gadget achieving the IOS property for any linear sharing with a quasilinear complexity $\Theta(n \log n)$ and a $O(1/\log n)$ leakage rate (for an $n$-size sharing). This refresh gadget is a simplified version of the quasilinear SNI refresh gadget proposed by Battistello, Coron, Prouff, and Zeitoun (ePrint~2016). As an application of our composition framework, we revisit the quasilinear-complexity masking scheme of Goudarzi, Joux and Rivain (Asiacrypt~2018). We improve this scheme by generalizing it to any base field (whereas the original proposal only applies to field with $n$th powers of unity) and by taking advantage of our composition approach. We further patch a flaw in the original security proof and extend it from the random probing model to the stronger region probing model. Finally, we present some application of this extended quasilinear masking scheme to AES and MiMC and compare the obtained performances.
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Atakan Arslan, Muhammed Ali Bingöl
ePrint Report ePrint Report
Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) has been popularly used in RFID authentication protocols to efficiently overcome many security and privacy issues. Even if the strong cryptography primitives of ECC are utilised in the authentication protocols, the schemes are alas far from providing security and privacy properties as desired level. In this paper, we analyze four up-to-minute ECC based RFID authentication schemes proposed by Gasbi et al., Benssalah et al., Kumar et al., and Agrahari and Varma. The authors claim that their schemes provide prominent and important security and privacy requirements. However, we have shown some crucial vulnerabilities of the schemes against their allegations. We attack to Gasbi et al.'s protocol by using transmitted messages in insecure channel and exploiting the message relations which points a specific tag, and show that the scheme does not provide tag anonymity/untraceability, forward and backward security and the scheme has performance problems. Moreover, we demonstrate that Kumar et al., and Agrahari and Varma's schemes do not achieve forward and backward security because the schemes are not designed to eliminate the advantage of an adversary obtaining full knowledge of a tag from by attack definition. We also show that Benssalah et al.'s scheme suffers from tag anonymity/untraceability, forward and backward security when the pseudonym of a tag is transmitted in insecure channel somehow without updating.
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Konstantinos Chalkias, Panagiotis Chatzigiannis, Yan Ji
ePrint Report ePrint Report
Since the Mt. Gox Bitcoin exchange collapse in 2014, a number of custodial cryptocurrency wallets offer a form of financial solvency proofs to bolster their users' confidence. We identified that despite recent academic works that highlight potential security and privacy vulnerabilities in popular auditability protocols, a number of high-profile exchanges implement these proofs incorrectly, thus defeating their initial purpose. In this paper we provide an overview of \textit{broken} liability proof systems used in production today and suggest fixes, in the hope of closing the gap between theory and practice. Surprisingly, many of these exploitable attacks are due to a) weak cryptographic operations, for instance SHA1 hashing or hash-output truncation to 8 bytes, b) lack of data binding, such as wrong Merkle tree inputs and misuse of public bulletin boards, and c) lack of user-ID uniqueness guarantees.
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AMBILI K N, JIMMY JOSE
ePrint Report ePrint Report
Authenticated encryption (AE) schemes are a necessity to secure the physical devices connected to the Internet. Two AE schemes, TinyJambu and Elephant, are finalists of NIST lightweight cryptography competition. Another AE scheme, ACORN v3, a CAESAR competition finalist, has been shown to be particularly vulnerable against Differential Fault Attack (DFA), even more than its previous version ACORN v2. TinyJambu is also susceptible to DFA. An optimized interpolation attack has been proposed against one instance of Elephant, Delirium, recently. We propose methods to strengthen these schemes using the Cellular Automata (CA) and increase their resistance to these attacks. The Programmable Cellular Automata (PCA) 90-150 is effectively deployed to make these ciphers robust against DFA. We also provide mathematical analysis of the invigorated schemes and show that significant improvement is achieved in all the three enhanced schemes.
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AMBILI K N, JIMMY JOSE
ePrint Report ePrint Report
The increasing use of resource limited devices with less memory, less computing resource and less power supply, motivates the adoption of lightweight cryptography to provide security solution. ASCON is a finalist and GIMLI is a round 2 candidate of NIST lightweight cryptography competition. ASCON is a sponge function based authenticated encryption (AE) scheme suitable for high performance applications. It is suitable for use in environments like Internet of Things (IoT) where large number of very constrained devices communicate with high-end servers. The drawback is that fault analyses like Statistical Ineffective fault attack (SIFA) and Sub-Set Fault Analysis (SSFA) are possible. GIMLI is also a sponge function based AE scheme which is susceptible to SIFA. In this work, we modify ASCON 128a and GIMLI exploiting the pseudo-random properties of Cellular Automata (CA) to prevent these attacks. We analyse and show that these attacks are inapplicable in the reinforced cipher.
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AMBILI K N, JIMMY JOSE
ePrint Report ePrint Report
Attribute based cryptography enhances the chances of secure communication on large scale. There are several features of attribute based encryption which have been proposed as different protocols. Most of these are suitable for access control in large systems like cloud services. Very few protocols focus on reducing the computational overhead for lower end devices like Internet of Things sensors and actuators. Hence, it is desirable to have a mix of features in protocols for IoT architecture. Our protocol enforces accountability of different parties involved while reducing the computational overhead during decryption on miniature devices. We prove that our protocol is RCCA-secure in selective security model and achieve accountability and unlinkability.
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AMBILI K N, JIMMY JOSE
ePrint Report ePrint Report
Cryptography based on identity and attributes enhances the chance of secure communication on a large scale. Several attribute-based encryption schemes achieve different objectives when used in various protocols. Most of these are suitable for large systems like cloud services. There are a few protocols which focus on reducing the computational overhead for lower end devices like Internet of Things sensors and actuators. It is desirable to have a mix of features in protocols for IoT security architecture. We first propose a scheme to ensure accountability in CPABE scheme FAME. The protocol is proven CPA-secure with full security in random oracle model. We also prove its accountability. We also propose a hybrid protocol that enforces user accountability and outsourced decryption in IoT systems and achieve full security in replayable chosen ciphertext attack (RCCA) under random oracle model.
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Antonio de la Piedra, Marloes Venema, Greg Alpár
ePrint Report ePrint Report
Measuring efficiency is difficult. In the last decades, several works have contributed in the quest to successfully determine and compare the efficiency of pairing-based attribute-based encryption (ABE) schemes. However, many of these works are limited: they use little to no optimizations, or use underlying pairing-friendly elliptic curves that do not provide sufficient security anymore. Hence, using these works to benchmark ABE schemes does not yield accurate results. Furthermore, most ABE design papers focus on the efficiency of one important aspect. For instance, a new scheme may aim to have a fast decryption algorithm. Upon realizing this goal, the designer compares the new scheme with existing ones, demonstrating its dominance in this particular aspect. Although this approach is intuitive and might seem fair, the way in which this comparison is done might be biased. For instance, the schemes that are compared with the new scheme may be optimized with respect to another aspect, and appear in the comparison consequently inferior.

In this work, we present a framework for accurately benchmarking efficiency of ABE: ABE Squared. In particular, we focus on uncovering the multiple layers of optimization that are relevant to the implementation of ABE schemes. Moreover, we focus on making any comparison fairer by considering the influence of the potential design goals any optimizations. On the lowest layer, we consider the available optimized arithmetic provided by state-of-the-art cryptographic libraries. On the higher layers, we consider the choice of elliptic curve, the order of the computations, and the instantiation of the scheme on the chosen curves. In this latter aspect, the way in which a scheme is type converted plays an important role. Additionally, we show that especially the higher-level optimizations are dependent on the goal of the designer, e.g. optimization of the decryption algorithm. To compare schemes more transparently, we develop this framework, in which ABE schemes can be justifiably optimized and compared by taking into account the possible goals of a designer. To meet these goals, we also introduce manual, heuristic type-conversion techniques where existing techniques fall short. Finally, to illustrate the effectiveness of ABE Squared, we implement several schemes and provide all relevant benchmarks. These show that the design goal influences the optimization approaches, which in turn influence the overall efficiency of the implementations. Importantly, these show that the schemes also compare differently than existing works previously suggested.
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Dmitrii Koshelev
ePrint Report ePrint Report
This note explains how to guarantee the membership of a point in the prime order subgroup of an elliptic curve (over a finite field) satisfying some moderate conditions. For this purpose, we apply the Tate pairing on the curve, however it is not required to be pairing-friendly. Whenever the cofactor is small, the given approach is more efficient than other known ones, because it needs to compute at most two $n$-th power residue symbols (with small $n$) in the basic field. In particular, we deal with two Legendre symbols for the curve Bandersnatch proposed by the Ethereum Foundation team. Due to recent improvements of Euclidean type constant-time algorithms for the Legendre symbol computation, the new subgroup check is almost free for that curve.
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Melissa Azouaoui, Olivier Bronchain, Clément Hoffmann, Yulia Kuzovkova, Tobias Schneider, François-Xavier Standaert
ePrint Report ePrint Report
The side-channel cryptanalysis of Post-Quantum (PQ) key encapsulation schemes has been a topic of intense activity over the last years. Many attacks have been put forward: Simple Power Analysis (SPAs) against the re-encryption of schemes using the Fujisaki-Okamoto (FO) transform are known to be very powerful; Differential Power Analysis (DPAs) against the decryption are also possible. Yet, to the best of our knowledge, a systematic and quantitative investigation of their impact for designers is still missing. In this paper, we propose to capture these attacks with shortcut formulas in order to compare their respective strength in function of the noise level. Taking the case of Kyber for illustration, we then evaluate the (high) cost of preventing them with masking and the extent to which different parts of an implementation could benefit from varying security levels. We finally discuss tweaks to improve the situation and enable a better leveling of the countermeasures. Our conclusions confirm that current solutions for side-channel secure PQ key encapsulation schemes like Kyber are unlikely to be efficient in low-noise settings without (design or countermeasures) improvements.
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Vipul Goyal, Justin Raizes, Pratik Soni
ePrint Report ePrint Report
Blockchain technology has the potential of transforming cryptography. We study the problem of round-complexity of zero-knowledge, and more broadly, of secure computation in the blockchain-hybrid model, where all parties can access the blockchain as an oracle.

We study zero-knowledge and secure computation through the lens of a new security notion where the simulator is given the ability to ``time-travel” or more accurately, to look into the future states of the blockchain and use this information to perform simulation. Such a time-traveling simulator gives a novel security guarantee of the following form: whatever the adversary could have learnt from an interaction, it could have computed on its own shortly into the future (e.g., a few hours from now).

We exhibit the power of time-traveling simulators by constructing round-efficient protocols in the blockchain-hybrid model. In particular, we construct: 1. Three-round zero-knowledge (ZK) argument for NP with a polynomial-time black-box time-traveling simulator. 2. Three-round secure two-party computation (2PC) for any functionality with a polynomial-time black-box time-traveling simulator for both parties.

In addition to standard cryptographic assumptions, we rely on natural hardness assumptions for Proof-of-Work based blockchains. In comparison, in the plain model, three-round protocols with black-box simulation are impossible, and constructions with non-black-box simulation for ZK require novel cryptographic assumptions while no construction for three-round 2PC is known. Our three-round 2PC result relies on a new, two-round extractable commitment that admits a time-traveling extractor.
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