International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

IACR News item: 13 November 2023

Yao-Ching Hsieh, Huijia Lin, Ji Luo
ePrint Report ePrint Report
Although we have known about fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) from circular security assumptions for over a decade [Gentry, STOC '09; Brakerski–Vaikuntanathan, FOCS '11], there is still a significant gap in understanding related homomorphic primitives supporting all *unrestricted* polynomial-size computations. One prominent example is attribute-based encryption (ABE). The state-of-the-art constructions, relying on the hardness of learning with errors (LWE) [Gorbunov–Vaikuntanathan–Wee, STOC '13; Boneh et al., Eurocrypt '14], only accommodate circuits up to a *predetermined* depth, akin to leveled homomorphic encryption. In addition, their components (master public key, secret keys, and ciphertexts) have sizes polynomial in the maximum circuit depth. Even in the simpler setting where a single key is published (or a single circuit is involved), the depth dependency persists, showing up in constructions of 1-key ABE and related primitives, including laconic function evaluation (LFE), 1-key functional encryption (FE), and reusable garbling schemes. So far, the only approach of eliminating depth dependency relies on indistinguishability obfuscation. An interesting question that has remained open for over a decade is whether the circular security assumptions enabling FHE can similarly benefit ABE.

In this work, we introduce new lattice-based techniques to overcome the depth-dependency limitations:

- Relying on a circular security assumption, we construct LFE, 1-key FE, 1-key ABE, and reusable garbling schemes capable of evaluating circuits of unbounded depth and size.

- Based on the *evasive circular* LWE assumption, a stronger variant of the recently proposed *evasive* LWE assumption [Wee, Eurocrypt '22; Tsabary, Crypto '22], we construct a full-fledged ABE scheme for circuits of unbounded depth and size.

Our LFE, 1-key FE, and reusable garbling schemes achieve optimal succinctness (up to polynomial factors in the security parameter). Their ciphertexts and input encodings have sizes linear in the input length, while function digest, secret keys, and garbled circuits have constant sizes independent of circuit parameters (for Boolean outputs). In fact, this gives the first constant-size garbled circuits without relying on indistinguishability obfuscation. Our ABE schemes offer short components, with master public key and ciphertext sizes linear in the attribute length and secret key being constant-size.

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