International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

IACR News item: 01 April 2024

Zehua Qiao, Yuejun Liu, Yongbin Zhou, Yuhan Zhao, Shuyi Chen
ePrint Report ePrint Report
As the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) concludes its post-quantum cryptography (PQC) competition, the winning algorithm, Dilithium, enters the deployment phase in 2024. This phase underscores the importance of conducting thorough practical security evaluations. Our study offers an in-depth side-channel analysis of Dilithium, showcasing the ability to recover the complete private key, ${s}_1$, within ten minutes using just two signatures and achieving a 60 success rate with a single signature. We focus on analyzing the polynomial addition in Dilithium, $z=y+{cs}_1$, by breaking down the attack into two main phases: the recovery of $y$ and ${cs}_1$ through side-channel attacks, followed by the resolution of a system of error-prone equations related to ${cs}_1$. Employing Linear Regression-based profiled attacks enables the successful recovery of the full $y$ value with a 40% success rate without the necessity for initial filtering. The extraction of ${cs}_1$ is further improved using a CNN model, which boasts an average success rate of 75%. A significant innovation of our research is the development of a constrained optimization-based residual analysis technique. This method efficiently recovers ${s}_1$ from a large set of error-containing equations concerning ${cs}_1$, proving effective even when only 10% of the equations are accurate. We conduct a practical attack on the Dilithium2 implementation on an STM32F4 platform, demonstrating that typically two signatures are sufficient for complete private key recovery, with a single signature sufficing in optimal conditions. Using a general-purpose PC, the full private key can be reconstructed in ten minutes.

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