One-Hot Conversion: Towards Faster Table-based A2B Conversion
Arithmetic to Boolean masking (A2B) conversion is a crucial technique in the masking of lattice-based post-quantum cryptography. It is also a crucial part of building a masked comparison which is one of the hardest to mask building blocks for active secure lattice-based encryption. We first present a new method, called one-hot conversion, to efficiently convert from higher-order arithmetic masking to Boolean masking using a variant of the higher-order table-based conversion of Coron et al. Secondly, we specialize our method to perform arithmetic to 1-bit Boolean functions. Our one-hot function can be applied to masking lattice-based encryption building blocks such as masked comparison or to determine the most significant bit of an arithmetically masked variable. In our benchmarks on a Cortex M4 processor, a speedup of 15 times is achieved over state-of-the-art table-based A2B conversions, bringing table-based A2B conversions within the performance range of the Boolean circuit-based A2B conversions.
Multitarget decryption failure attacks and their application to Saber and Kyber 📺
Many lattice-based encryption schemes are subject to a very small probability of decryption failures. It has been shown that an adversary can efficiently recover the secret key using a number of ciphertexts that cause such a decryption failure. In PKC 2019, D'Anvers et al. introduced `failure boosting', a technique to speed up the search for decryption failures. In this work we first improve the state-of-the-art multitarget failure boosting attacks. We then improve the cost calculation of failure boosting and extend the applicability of these calculations to permit cost calculations of real-world schemes. Using our newly developed methodologies we determine the multitarget decryption failure attack cost for all parameter sets of Saber and Kyber, showing among others that the quantum security of Saber can theoretically be reduced from 172 bits to 145 bits in specific circumstances. We then discuss the applicability of decryption failure attacks in real-world scenarios, showing that an attack might not be practical to execute.
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