## IACR paper details

Title | Solving Systems of Differential Equations of Addition |
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Booktitle | IACR Eprint archive |
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Pages | |
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Year | 2004 |
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URL | http://eprint.iacr.org/2004/294 |
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Author | Souradyuti Paul |
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Author | Bart Preneel |
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Abstract |
Mixing addition modulo $2^n$ ($+$) and exclusive-or ($\oplus$) have a host of applications
in symmetric cryptography as the operations are fast and nonlinear over GF(2). We deal with
a frequently encountered equation $(x+y)\oplus((x\oplus\x)+(y\oplus\y))=\z$. The difficulty
of solving an arbitrary system of such equations -- named \emph{differential equations of
addition} (DEA) -- is an important consideration in the evaluation of the security of many
ciphers against \emph{differential attacks}. This paper shows that the satisfiability of an
arbitrary set of DEA -- which has so far been assumed \emph{hard} for large $n$ -- is in
the complexity class P. We also design an efficient algorithm to obtain all solutions to an
arbitrary system of DEA with running time linear in the
number of solutions.\\
Our second contribution is solving DEA in an \emph{adaptive query model} where an equation
is formed by a query $(\x,\y)$ and oracle output $\z$. The challenge is to optimize the
number of queries to solve $(x+y)\oplus((x\oplus\x)+(y\oplus\y))=\z$. Our algorithm solves
this equation with only 3 queries in the worst case. Another algorithm solves the equation
$(x+y)\oplus(x+(y\oplus\y))=\z$ with $(n-t-1)$ queries in the worst case ($t$ is the
position of the least significant `1' of $x$), and thus, outperforms the previous best
known algorithm by Muller -- presented at FSE~'04 -- which required $3(n-1)$ queries. Most
importantly, we show that the upper bounds, for our algorithms, on the number of queries
match worst case lower bounds. This, essentially, closes further research in this direction
as our lower bounds are \emph{optimal}. Finally we describe applications of our results in
\emph{differential
cryptanalysis. |
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Search for the paper

@misc{eprint-2004-12260,
title={Solving Systems of Differential Equations of Addition},
booktitle={IACR Eprint archive},
keywords={Differential Cryptanalysis, Addition, Optimal bound},
url={http://eprint.iacr.org/2004/294},
note={An Extended Abstract of this Paper will be published in the proceedings of ACISP 2005 Souradyuti.Paul@esat.kuleuven.ac.be 13390 received 7 Nov 2004, last revised 30 Aug 2006},
author={Souradyuti Paul and Bart Preneel},
year=2004
}

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