International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Hanshen Xiao


PAC Privacy: Automatic Privacy Measurement and Control of Data Processing
Hanshen Xiao Srinivas Devadas
We propose and study a new privacy definition, termed Probably Approximately Correct (PAC) Privacy. PAC Privacy characterizes the information-theoretic hardness to recover sensitive data given arbitrary information disclosure/leakage during/after any processing. Unlike the classic cryptographic definition and Differential Privacy (DP), which consider the adversarial input-independent worst case}, PAC Privacy is a simulatable metric that quantifies the instance-based impossibility of inference. A fully automatic analysis and proof generation framework is proposed: security parameters can be produced with arbitrarily high confidence via Monte-Carlo simulation for any black-box data processing oracle. This appealing automation property enables analysis of complicated data processing, where the worst-case proof in the classic privacy regime could be loose or even intractable. Moreover, we show that the produced PAC Privacy guarantees enjoy simple composition bounds and the automatic analysis framework can be implemented in an online fashion to analyze the composite PAC Privacy loss even under correlated randomness. On the utility side, the magnitude of (necessary) perturbation required in PAC Privacy is not lower bounded by Theta(\sqrt{d}) for a d-dimensional release but could be O(1) for many practical data processing tasks, which is in contrast to the input-independent worst-case information-theoretic lower bound. Example applications of PAC Privacy are included with comparisons to existing works.
Expected Constant Round Byzantine Broadcast under Dishonest Majority 📺
Byzantine Broadcast (BB) is a central question in distributed systems, and an important challenge is to understand its round complexity. Under the honest majority setting, it is long known that there exist randomized protocols that can achieve BB in expected constant rounds, regardless of the number of nodes $n$. However, whether we can match the expected constant round complexity in the corrupt majority setting --- or more precisely, when $f \geq n/2 + \omega(1)$ --- remains unknown, where $f$ denotes the number of corrupt nodes. In this paper, we are the first to resolve this long-standing question. We show how to achieve BB in expected $O((n/(n-f))^2)$ rounds. In particular, even when 99\% of the nodes are corrupt we can achieve expected constant rounds. Our results hold under both a static adversary and a weakly adaptive adversary who cannot perform ``after-the-fact removal'' of messages already sent by a node before it becomes corrupt.
Round-Efficient Byzantine Broadcast under Strongly Adaptive and Majority Corruptions 📺
The round complexity of Byzantine Broadcast (BB) has been a central question in distributed systems and cryptography. In the honest majority setting, expected constant round protocols have been known for decades even in the presence of a strongly adaptive adversary. In the corrupt majority setting, however, no protocol with sublinear round complexity is known, even when the adversary is allowed to {\it strongly adaptively} corrupt only 51\% of the players, and even under reasonable setup or cryptographic assumptions. Recall that a strongly adaptive adversary can examine what original message an honest player would have wanted to send in some round, adaptively corrupt the player in the same round and make it send a completely different message instead. In this paper, we are the first to construct a BB protocol with sublinear round complexity in the corrupt majority setting. Specifically, assuming the existence of time-lock puzzles with suitable hardness parameters and other standard cryptographic assumptions, we show how to achieve BB in $(\frac{n}{n-f})^2 \cdot \poly\log \lambda$ rounds with $1-\negl(\lambda)$ probability, where $n$ denotes the total number of players, $f$ denotes the maximum number of corrupt players, and $\lambda$ is the security parameter. Our protocol completes in polylogarithmically many rounds even when 99\% of the players can be corrupt.


Srini Devadas (1)
Srinivas Devadas (3)
Ling Ren (1)
Elaine Shi (2)
Jun Wan (2)