Novel Side-Channel Attacks on Quasi-Cyclic Code-Based Cryptography 📺
Chou suggested a constant-time implementation for quasi-cyclic moderatedensity parity-check (QC-MDPC) code-based cryptography to mitigate timing attacks at CHES 2016. This countermeasure was later found to become vulnerable to a differential power analysis (DPA) in private syndrome computation, as described by Rossi et al. at CHES 2017. The proposed DPA, however, still could not completely recover accurate secret indices, requiring further solving linear equations to obtain entire secret information. In this paper, we propose a multiple-trace attack which enables to completely recover accurate secret indices. We further propose a singletrace attack which can even work when using ephemeral keys or applying Rossi et al.’s DPA countermeasures. Our experiments show that the BIKE and LEDAcrypt may become vulnerable to our proposed attacks. The experiments are conducted using power consumption traces measured from ChipWhisperer-Lite XMEGA (8-bit processor) and ChipWhisperer UFO STM32F3 (32-bit processor) target boards.
Side-Channel Attacks on Post-Quantum Signature Schemes based on Multivariate Quadratic Equations - Rainbow and UOV -
In this paper, we investigate the security of Rainbow and Unbalanced Oil-and-Vinegar (UOV) signature schemes based on multivariate quadratic equations, which is one of the most promising alternatives for post-quantum signature schemes, against side-channel attacks. We describe correlation power analysis (CPA) on the schemes that yield full secret key recoveries. First, we identify a secret leakage of secret affine maps S and T during matrix-vector products in signing when Rainbow is implemented with equivalent keys rather than random affine maps for optimal implementations. In this case, the simple structure of the equivalent keys leads to the retrieval of the entire secret affine map T. Next, we extend the full secret key recovery to the general case using random affine maps via a hybrid attack: after recovering S by performing CPA, we recover T by mounting algebraic key recovery attacks. We demonstrate how this leakage on Rainbow can be practically exploited on an 8-bit AVR microcontroller using CPA. Consequently, our CPA can be applied to Rainbow-like multi-layered schemes regardless of the use of the simple-structured equivalent keys and UOV-like single layer schemes with the implementations using the equivalent keys of the simple structure. This is the first result on the security of multivariate quadratic equations-based signature schemes using only CPA. Our result can be applied to Rainbow-like multi-layered schemes and UOV-like single layer schemes submitted to NIST for Post-Quantum Cryptography Standardization.