International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Neng Zhang


A Compact and High-Performance Hardware Architecture for CRYSTALS-Dilithium
The lattice-based CRYSTALS-Dilithium scheme is one of the three thirdround digital signature finalists in the National Institute of Standards and Technology Post-Quantum Cryptography Standardization Process. Due to the complex calculations and highly individualized functions in Dilithium, its hardware implementations face the problems of large area requirements and low efficiency. This paper proposes several optimization methods to achieve a compact and high-performance hardware architecture for round 3 Dilithium. Specifically, a segmented pipelined processing method is proposed to reduce both the storage requirements and the processing time. Moreover, several optimized modules are designed to improve the efficiency of the proposed architecture, including a pipelined number theoretic transform module, a SampleInBall module, a Decompose module, and three modular reduction modules. Compared with state-of-the-art designs for Dilithium on similar platforms, our implementation requires 1.4×/1.4×/3.0×/4.5× fewer LUTs/FFs/BRAMs/DSPs, respectively, and 4.4×/1.7×/1.4× less time for key generation, signature generation, and signature verification, respectively, for NIST security level 5.
Optimizing Rectangle Attacks: A Unified and Generic Framework for Key Recovery 📺
The rectangle attack has shown to be a very powerful form of cryptanalysis against block ciphers. Given a rectangle distinguisher, one expects to mount key recovery attacks as efficiently as possible. In the literature, there have been four algorithms for rectangle key recovery attacks. However, their performance vary from case to case. Besides, numerous are the applications where the attacks lack optimality. In this paper, we investigate the rectangle key recovery in depth and propose a unified and generic key recovery algorithm, which supports any possible attacking parameters. Notably, it not only covers the four previous rectangle key recovery algorithms, but also unveils five types of new attacks which were missed previously. Along with the new key recovery algorithm, we propose a framework for automatically finding the best attacking parameters, with which the time complexity of the rectangle attack will be minimized using the new algorithm. To demonstrate the efficiency of the new key recovery algorithm, we apply it to Serpent, CRAFT, SKINNY and Deoxys-BC-256 based on existing distinguishers and obtain a series of improved rectangle attacks.
Highly Efficient Architecture of NewHope-NIST on FPGA using Low-Complexity NTT/INTT 📺
NewHope-NIST is a promising ring learning with errors (RLWE)-based postquantum cryptography (PQC) for key encapsulation mechanisms. The performance on the field-programmable gate array (FPGA) affects the applicability of NewHope-NIST. In RLWE-based PQC algorithms, the number theoretic transform (NTT) is one of the most time-consuming operations. In this paper, low-complexity NTT and inverse NTT (INTT) are used to implement highly efficient NewHope-NIST on FPGA. First, both the pre-processing of NTT and the post-processing of INTT are merged into the fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm, which reduces N and 2N modular multiplications for N-point NTT and INTT, respectively. Second, a compact butterfly unit and an efficient modular reduction on the modulus 12289 are proposed for the low-complexity NTT/INTT architecture, which achieves an improvement of approximately 3× in the area time product (ATP) compared with the results of the state-of-the-art designs. Finally, a highly efficient architecture with doubled bandwidth and timing hiding for NewHope-NIST is presented. The implementation results on an FPGA show that our design is at least 2.5× faster and has 4.9× smaller ATP compared with the results of the state-of-the-art designs of NewHope-NIST on similar platforms.