International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Yeongmin Lee


Building PRFs from TPRPs: Beyond the Block and the Tweak Length Bounds
Wonseok Choi Jooyoung Lee Yeongmin Lee
A secure n-bit tweakable block cipher (TBC) using t-bit tweaks can be modeled as a tweakable uniform random permutation, where each tweak defines an independent random n-bit permutation. When an input to this tweakable permutation is fixed, it can be viewed as a perfectly secure t-bit random function. On the other hand, when a tweak is fixed, it can be viewed as a perfectly secure n-bit random permutation, and it is well known that the sum of two random permutations is pseudorandom up to 2n queries.A natural question is whether one can construct a pseudorandom function (PRF) beyond the block and the tweak length bounds using a small number of calls to the underlying tweakable permutations. A straightforward way of constructing a PRF from tweakable permutations is to xor the outputs from two tweakable permutations with c bits of the input to each permutation fixed. Using the multi-user security of the sum of two permutations, one can prove that the (t + n − c)-to-n bit PRF is secure up to 2n+c queries.In this paper, we propose a family of PRF constructions based on tweakable permutations, dubbed XoTPc, achieving stronger security than the straightforward construction. XoTPc is parameterized by c, giving a (t + n − c)-to-n bit PRF. When t < 3n and c = t/3 , XoTPt/3 becomes an (n + 2t/3 )-to-n bit pseudorandom function, which is secure up to 2n+2t/3 queries. It provides security beyond the block and the tweak length bounds, making two calls to the underlying tweakable permutations. In order to prove the security of XoTPc, we extend Mirror theory to q ≫ 2n, where q is the number of equations. From a practical point of view, our construction can be used to construct TBC-based MAC finalization functions and CTR-type encryption modes with stronger provable security compared to existing schemes.
Multi-User Security of the Sum of Truncated Random Permutations 📺
For several decades, constructing pseudorandom functions from pseudorandom permutations, so-called Luby-Rackoff backward construction, has been a popular cryptographic problem. Two methods are well-known and comprehensively studied for this problem: summing two random permutations and truncating partial bits of the output from a random permutation. In this paper, by combining both summation and truncation, we propose new Luby-Rackoff backward constructions, dubbed SaT1 and SaT2, respectively. SaT2 is obtained by partially truncating output bits from the sum of two independent random permutations, and SaT1 is its single permutation-based variant using domain separation. The distinguishing advantage against SaT1 and SaT2 is upper bounded by O(\sqrt{\mu q_max}/2^{n-0.5m}) and O({\sqrt{\mu}q_max^1.5}/2^{2n-0.5m}), respectively, in the multi-user setting, where n is the size of the underlying permutation, m is the output size of the construction, \mu is the number of users, and q_max is the maximum number of queries per user. We also prove the distinguishing advantage against a variant of XORP[3]~(studied by Bhattacharya and Nandi at Asiacrypt 2021) using independent permutations, dubbed SoP3-2, is upper bounded by O(\sqrt{\mu} q_max^2}/2^{2.5n})$. In the multi-user setting with \mu = O(2^{n-m}), a truncated random permutation provides only the birthday bound security, while SaT1 and SaT2 are fully secure, i.e., allowing O(2^n) queries for each user. It is the same security level as XORP[3] using three permutation calls, while SaT1 and SaT2 need only two permutation calls.
Toward a Fully Secure Authenticated Encryption Scheme From a Pseudorandom Permutation 📺
In this paper, we propose a new block cipher-based authenticated encryption scheme, dubbed the Synthetic Counter with Masking (SCM) mode. SCM follows the NSIV paradigm proposed by Peyrin and Seurin (CRYPTO 2016), where a keyed hash function accepts a nonce N with associated data and a message, yielding an authentication tag T, and then the message is encrypted by a counter-like mode using both T and N. Here we move one step further by encrypting nonces; in the encryption part, the inputs to the block cipher are determined by T, counters, and an encrypted nonce, and all its outputs are also masked by an (additional) encrypted nonce, yielding keystream blocks. As a result, we obtain, for the first time, a block cipher-based authenticated encryption scheme of rate 1/2 that provides n-bit security with respect to the query complexity (ignoring the influence of message length) in the nonce-respecting setting, and at the same time guarantees graceful security degradation in the faulty nonce model, when the underlying n-bit block cipher is modeled as a secure pseudorandom permutation. Seen as a slight variant of GCM-SIV, SCM is also parallelizable and inverse-free, and its performance is still comparable to GCM-SIV.
Improved Security Analysis for Nonce-based Enhanced Hash-then-Mask MACs 📺
In this paper, we prove that the nonce-based enhanced hash-then-mask MAC (nEHtM) is secure up to 2^{3n/4} MAC queries and 2^n verification queries (ignoring logarithmic factors) as long as the number of faulty queries \mu is below 2^{3n/8}, significantly improving the previous bound by Dutta et al. Even when \mu goes beyond 2^{3n/8}, nEHtM enjoys graceful degradation of security. The second result is to prove the security of PRF-based nEHtM; when nEHtM is based on an n-to-s bit random function for a fixed size s such that 1 <= s <= n, it is proved to be secure up to any number of MAC queries and 2^s verification queries, if (1) s = n and \mu < 2^{n/2} or (2) n/2 < s < 2^{n-s} and \mu < max{2^{s/2}, 2^{n-s}}, or (3) s <= n/2 and \mu < 2^{n/2}. This result leads to the security proof of truncated nEHtM that returns only s bits of the original tag since a truncated permutation can be seen as a pseudorandom function. In particular, when s <= 2n/3, the truncated nEHtM is secure up to 2^{n - s/2} MAC queries and 2^s verification queries as long as \mu < min{2^{n/2}, 2^{n-s}}. For example, when s = n/2 (resp. s = n/4), the truncated nEHtM is secure up to 2^{3n/4} (resp. 2^{7n/8}) MAC queries. So truncation might provide better provable security than the original nEHtM with respect to the number of MAC queries.
Forking Tweakable Even-Mansour Ciphers 📺
Hwigyeom Kim Yeongmin Lee Jooyoung Lee
A forkcipher is a keyed, tweakable function mapping an n-bit input to a 2nbit output, which is equivalent to concatenating two outputs from two permutations. A forkcipher can be a useful primitive to design authenticated encryption schemes for short messages. A forkcipher is typically designed within the iterate-fork-iterate (IFI) paradigm, while the provable security of such a construction has not been widely explored.In this paper, we propose a method of constructing a forkcipher using public permutations as its building primitives. It can be seen as applying the IFI paradigm to the tweakable Even-Mansour ciphers. So our construction is dubbed the forked tweakable Even-Mansour (FTEM) cipher. Our main result is to prove that a (1, 1)-round FTEM cipher (applying a single-round TEM to a plaintext, followed by two independent copies of a single-round TEM) is secure up to 2 2n/3 queries in the ideal permutation model.