## CryptoDB

### Emanuele Giunta

#### ORCID: 0000-0001-5294-6648

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2024

EUROCRYPT

Anamorphic Encryption: New Constructions and Homomorphic Realizations
Abstract

The elegant paradigm of Anamorphic Encryption (Persiano
et al., Eurocrypt 2022) considers the question of establishing a private
communication in a world controlled by a dictator. The challenge is to
allow two users, sharing some secret anamorphic key, to exchange covert
messages without the dictator noticing, even when the latter has full
access to the regular secret keys. Over the last year several works con-
sidered this question and proposed constructions, novel extensions and
strengthened definitions.
In this work we make progress on the study of this primitive in three
main directions. First, we show that two general and well established
encryption paradigms, namely hybrid encryption and the IBE-to-CCA
transform, admit very simple and natural anamorphic extensions. Next,
we show that anamorphism, far from being a phenomenon isolated to
"basic" encryption schemes, extends also to homomorphic encryption.
We show that some existing homomorphic schemes, (and most notably
the fully homomorphic one by Gentry, Sahai and Waters) can be made
anamorphic, while retaining their homomorphic properties both with
respect to the regular and the covert message.
Finally we refine the notion of anamorphic encryption by envisioning the
possibility of splitting the anamorphic key into an encryption component
(that only allows to encrypt covert messages) and a decryption compo-
nent. This makes possible for a receiver to set up several, independent,
covert channels associated with a single covert key.

2024

EUROCRYPT

Unbiasable Verifiable Random Functions
Abstract

Verifiable Random Functions (VRFs) play a pivotal role in Proof of Stake (PoS) blockchain due to their applications in secret leader election protocols.
However, the original definition by Goldreich, Goldwasser and Micali is by itself insufficient for such applications.
The primary concern is that adversaries may craft VRF key pairs with skewed output distribution, allowing them to unfairly increase their winning chances.
To address this issue David, Gazi, Kiayias and Russel (2017/573) proposed a stronger definition in the universal composability framework, while Esgin et al. (FC '21) put forward a weaker game-based one.
Their proposed notions come with some limitations though.
The former appears to be too strong, being seemingly impossible to instantiate without a programmable random oracle.
The latter instead is not sufficient to prove security for VRF-based secret leader election schemes.
In this work we close the above gap by proposing a new security property for VRF we call unbiasability.
On the one hand, our notion suffices to imply fairness in VRF-based leader elections protocols.
On the other hand, we provide an efficient compiler in the plain model (with no CRS) transforming any VRF into an unbiasable one under standard assumptions.
Moreover, we show folklore VRF constructions in the ROM to achieve our notion without the need to program the random oracle.
As a minor contribution, we also provide a generic and efficient construction of certified 1 to 1 VRFs from any VRF.

2024

CRYPTO

Limits of Black-Box Anamorphic Encryption
Abstract

(Receiver) Anamorphic encryption, introduced by Persiano
et al. at Eurocrypt 2022, considers the question of achieving private
communication in a world where secret decryption keys are under the
control of a dictator. The challenge here is to be able to establish a secret
communication channel to exchange covert (i.e. anamorphic) messages
on top of some already deployed public key encryption scheme.
Over the last few years several works addressed this challenge by show-
ing new constructions, refined notions and extensions. Most of these con-
structions, however, are either ad hoc, in the sense that they build upon
specific properties of the underlying PKE, or impose severe restrictions
on the size of the underlying anamorphic message space.
In this paper we consider the question of whether it is possible to have
realizations of the primitive that are both generic and allow for large
anamorphic message spaces. We give strong indications that, unfortu-
nately, this is not the case.
Our first result shows that any black-box realization of the primitive, i.e.
any realization that accesses the underlying PKE only via oracle calls,
must have an anamorphic message space of size at most O(poly(λ)) (λ
security parameter).
Even worse, if one aims at stronger variants of the primitive (and, specif-
ically, the notion of asymmetric anamorphic encryption, recently pro-
posed by Catalano et al.) we show that such black-box realizations are
plainly impossible, i.e. no matter how small the anamorphic message
space is.
Finally, we show that our impossibility results are rather tight: indeed,
by making more specific assumptions on the underlying PKE, it becomes
possible to build generic AE where the anamorphic message space is of
size Ω(2^λ).

2024

ASIACRYPT

Verifiable Secret Sharing from Symmetric Key Cryptography with Improved Optimistic Complexity
Abstract

In this paper we propose verifiable secret sharing (VSS) schemes
secure for any honest majority in the synchronous model, and that only use \textit{symmetric-key} cryptographic tools, therefore having plausibly post-quantum security. Compared to the state-of-the-art scheme with these features (Atapoor et al., Asiacrypt `23), our main improvement lies on the complexity of the \textit{``optimistic''} scenario where the dealer and all but a small number of receivers behave honestly in the sharing phase: in this case, the running time and download complexity (amount of information read) of each honest verifier is \textit{polylogarithmic} and the total amount of broadcast information by the dealer is \textit{logarithmic}; all these complexities were linear in the aforementioned work by Atapoor et al. At the same time, we preserve these complexities with respect to the previous work for the ``pessimistic'' case where the dealer or $O(n)$ receivers cheat actively.
The new VSS protocol is of interest in multiparty computations where each party runs one VSS as a dealer, such as distributed key generation protocols.
Our main technical handle is a distributed zero-knowledge proof of low degreeness of a polynomial, in the model of Boneh et al. (Crypto `19) where the statement (in this case the evaluations of the witness polynomial) is distributed among several verifiers, each knowing one evaluation. Using folding techniques similar to FRI (Ben-Sasson et al., ICALP `18) we construct such a proof where each verifier receives polylogarithmic information and runs in polylogarithmic time.

2023

PKC

Efficient and Universally Composable Single Secret Leader Election from Pairings
Abstract

Single Secret Leader Election (SSLE) protocols allow a set of users to elect a leader among them so that the identity of the winner remains secret until she decides to reveal herself. This notion was formalized and implemented in a recent result by Boneh, et al. (ACM Advances on Financial Technology 2020) and finds important applications in the area of Proof of Stake blockchains.
In this paper we put forward new SSLE solutions that advance the state of the art both from a theoretical and a practical front. On the theoretical side we propose a new definition of SSLE in the universal composability framework. We believe this to be the right way to model security in highly concurrent contexts such as those of many blockchain related applications. Next, we propose a UC-realization of SSLE from public key encryption with keyword search (PEKS) and based on the ability of distributing the PEKS key generation and encryption algorithms. Finally, we give a concrete PEKS scheme with efficient distributed algorithms for key generation and encryption and that allows us to efficiently instantiate our abstract SSLE construction.
Our resulting SSLE protocol is very efficient, does not require participants to store any state information besides their secret keys and guarantees so called on-chain efficiency:
the information to verify an election in the new block should be of size at most logarithmic in the number of participants.
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first efficient SSLE scheme achieving this property.

2023

CRYPTO

On the Impossibility of Algebraic NIZK In Pairing-Free Groups
Abstract

Non-Interactive Zero-Knowledge proofs (NIZK) allow a prover to convince a verifier that a statement is true by sending only one message and without conveying any other information.
In the CRS model, many instantiations have been proposed from group-theoretic assumptions.
On the one hand, some of these constructions use the group structure in a black-box way but rely on pairings, an example being the celebrated Groth-Sahai proof system.
On the other hand, a recent line of research realized NIZKs from sub-exponential DDH in pairing-free groups using Correlation Intractable Hash functions, but at the price of making non black-box usage of the group.
As of today no construction is known to \textit{simultaneously} reduce its security to pairing-free group problems and to use the underlying group in a black-box way.
This is indeed not a coincidence:
in this paper, we prove that for a large class of NIZK either a pairing-free group is used non black-box by relying on element representation, or security reduces to external hardness assumptions.
More specifically our impossibility applies to two incomparable cases:
The first one covers Arguments of Knowledge (AoK) which proves that a preimage under a given one way function is known.
The second one covers NIZK (not necessarily AoK) for hard subset problems, which captures relations such as DDH, Decision-Linear and Matrix-DDH.

2023

TCC

Round-Robin is Optimal: Lower Bounds for Group Action Based Protocols
Abstract

An hard homogeneous space (HHS) is a finite group acting on a set with
the group action being hard to invert and the set lacking any algebraic
structure.
As such HHS could potentially replace finite groups where the discrete logarithm is hard for building cryptographic primitives and protocols in a post-quantum world.
Threshold HHS-based primitives typically require parties to compute the group action of a secret-shared input on a public set element.
On one hand this could be done through generic MPC techniques, although they incur in prohibitive costs due to the high complexity of circuits evaluating group actions known to date.
On the other hand round-robin protocols only require black box usage of the HHS.
However these are highly sequential procedures, lasting as many rounds as parties involved.
The high round complexity appears to be inherent due the lack of homomorphic properties in HHS, yet no lower bounds were known so far.
In this work we formally show that round-robin protocols are optimal.
In other words, any \textit{at least passively secure} distributed computation of a group action making black-box use of an HHS must take a number of rounds greater or equal to the threshold parameter.
We furthermore study \textit{fair} protocols in which all users receive the output in the same round (unlike plain round-robin), and prove communication and computation lower bounds of $\Omega(n \log_2 n)$ for $n$ parties.
Our results are proven in Shoup's Generic Action Model (GAM), and hold regardless of the underlying computational assumptions.

2022

TCC

On the Impossibility of Algebraic Vector Commitments in Pairing-Free Groups
Abstract

Vector Commitments allow one to (concisely) commit to a vector of messages so that one can later (concisely) open the commitment at selected locations. In the state of the art of vector commitments, {\em algebraic} constructions have emerged as a particularly useful class, as they enable advanced properties, such as stateless updates, subvector openings and aggregation, that are for example unknown in Merkle-tree-based schemes.
In spite of their popularity, algebraic vector commitments remain poorly understood objects. In particular, no construction in standard prime order groups (without pairing) is known.
In this paper, we shed light on this state of affairs by showing that a large class of concise algebraic vector commitments in pairing-free, prime order groups are impossible to realize.
Our results also preclude any cryptographic primitive that implies the algebraic vector commitments we rule out, as special cases.
This means that we also show the impossibility, for instance, of succinct polynomial commitments and functional commitments (for all classes of functions including linear forms) in pairing-free groups of prime order.

#### Coauthors

- Ignacio Cascudo (1)
- Dario Catalano (4)
- Daniele Cozzo (2)
- Dario Fiore (2)
- Rosario Gennaro (1)
- Emanuele Giunta (8)
- Francesco Migliaro (2)
- Alistair Stewart (1)