## CryptoDB

### Ethan Mook

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2024

EUROCRYPT

Laconic Function Evaluation, Functional Encryption and Obfuscation for RAMs with Sublinear Computation
Abstract

Laconic function evaluation (LFE) is a ``flipped'' version of fully homomorphic encryption, where the server performing the computation gets the output. The server commits itself to a function $f$ by outputting a small digest. Clients can later efficiently encrypt inputs $x$ with respect to the digest in much less time than computing $f$, and ensure that the server only decrypts $f(x)$, but does not learn anything else about $x$. Prior works constructed LFE for \emph{circuits} under LWE, and for \emph{Turing Machines (TMs)} from indistinguishability obfuscation (iO). In this work we introduce LFE for \emph{Random-Access Machines} (RAM-LFE). The server commits itself to a potentially huge database $y$ via a short digest. Clients can later efficiently encrypt inputs $x$ with respect to the digest and the server decrypts $f(x,y)$ for some specified RAM program $f$ (e.g., a universal RAM), without learning anything else about $x$. The main advantage of RAM-LFE is that the server's decryption run-time only scales with the RAM run-time $T$ of the computation $f(x,y)$, which can be sublinear in both $|x|$ and $|y|$. We consider a \emph{weakly efficient} variant, where the client's run-time is also allowed to scale linearly with $T$, but not $|y|$, and a \emph{strongly efficient} variant, where the client's run-time must be sublinear in both $T$ and $|y|$. We construct the the former from doubly efficient private information retrieval (DEPIR) and laconic OT (LOT), both of which are known from RingLWE, and the latter from an additional use of iO. We then show how to leverage strongly efficient RAM-LFE to also get (many-key) \emph{functional encryption for RAMs (RAM-FE)} where secret keys are associate with big databases $y$ and the decryption time is sublinear in $|y|$, as well as \emph{iO for RAMs} where the obfuscated program contains a big database $y$ and the evaluation time is sublinear in $|y|$.

2024

CRYPTO

Laconic Function Evaluation and ABE for RAMs from (Ring-)LWE
Abstract

Laconic function evaluation (LFE) allows us to compress a circuit $f$ into a short digest. Anybody can use this digest as a public-key to efficiently encrypt some input $x$. Decrypting the resulting ciphertext reveals the output $f(x)$, while hiding everything else about $x$. In this work we consider LFE for \emph{Random-Access Machines} (RAM-LFE) where, instead of a circuit $f$, we have a RAM program $f_{\DB}$ that potentially contains some large hard-coded data $\DB$. The decryption run-time to recover $f_{\DB}(x)$ from the ciphertext should be roughly the same as a plain evaluation of $f_{\DB}(x)$ in the RAM model, which can be sublinear in the size of $\DB$. Prior works constructed LFE for circuits under LWE, and RAM-LFE under indisitinguishability obfuscation (iO) and Ring-LWE. In this work, we construct RAM-LFE with essentially optimal encryption and decryption run-times from just Ring-LWE and a standard circular security assumption, without iO.
RAM-LFE directly yields 1-key succinct functional encryption and reusable garbling for RAMs with similar parameters.
If we only want an \emph{attribute-based} LFE for RAMs (RAM-AB-LFE), then we can replace Ring-LWE with plain LWE in the above. Orthogonally, if we only want \emph{leveled} schemes, where the encryption/decryption efficiency can scale with the depth of the RAM computation, then we can remove the need for a circular-security. Lastly, we also get a leveled many-key \emph{attribute-based encryption for RAMs (RAM-ABE)}, from LWE.

2024

CRYPTO

Doubly Efficient Cryptography: Commitments, Arguments and RAM MPC
Abstract

Can a sender commit to a long input without even reading all of it? Can a prover convince a verifier that an NP statement holds without even reading the entire witness? Can a set of parties run a multiparty computation (MPC) protocol in the RAM model, without necessarily even reading their entire inputs? We show how to construct such ``doubly efficient'' schemes in a setting where parties can preprocess their input offline, but subsequently they can engage in many different protocol executions over this input in sublinear online time. We do so in the plain model, without any common setup. Our constructions rely on doubly efficient private information retrieval (DEPIR) as a building block and can be instantiated based on Ring LWE.
In more detail, we begin by constructing doubly efficient (interactive) commitments, where the sender preprocesses the input offline, and can later commit to this input to arbitrary receivers in sublinear online time. Moreover, the sender can open individual bits of the committed input in sublinear time. We then use these commitments to implement doubly succinct (interactive) arguments, where the prover preprocesses the statement/witness offline, and can subsequently run many proof protocols to convince arbitrary verifiers of the statement's validity in sublinear online time. Furthermore, we augment these to get a doubly efficient ``commit, prove and locally open'' protocol, where the prover can commit to a long preprocessed input, prove that it satisfies some global property, and locally open individual bits, all in sublinear time. Finally, we leverage these tools to construct a RAM-MPC with malicious security in the plain model. Each party individually preprocesses its input offline, and can then run arbitrary MPC executions over this input with arbitrary other parties. The online run-time of each MPC execution is only proportional to the RAM run-time of the underlying program, that can be sublinear in the input size.

2022

TCC

Post-Quantum Insecurity from LWE
Abstract

We show that for many fundamental cryptographic primitives, proving classical security under the learning-with-errors (LWE) assumption, does \emph{not} imply post-quantum security. This is despite the fact that LWE is widely believed to be post-quantum secure, and our work does not give any evidence otherwise. Instead, it shows that post-quantum insecurity can arise inside cryptographic constructions, even if the assumptions are post-quantum secure.
Concretely, our work provides (contrived) constructions of pseudorandom functions, CPA-secure symmetric-key encryption, message-authentication codes, signatures, and CCA-secure public-key encryption schemes, all of which are proven to be classically secure under LWE via black-box reductions, but demonstrably fail to be post-quantum secure. All of these cryptosystems are stateless and non-interactive, but their security is defined via an interactive game that allows the attacker to make oracle queries to the cryptosystem. The polynomial-time quantum attacker can break these schemes by only making a few \emph{classical} queries to the cryptosystem, and in some cases, a single query suffices.
Previously, we only had examples of post-quantum insecurity under post-quantum assumptions for stateful/interactive protocols. Moreover, there appears to be a folklore belief that for stateless/non-interactive cryptosystems with black-box proofs of security, a quantum attack against the scheme should translate into a quantum attack on the assumption. This work shows otherwise. Our main technique is to carefully embed interactive protocols inside the interactive security games of the above primitives.
As a result of independent interest, we also show a 3-round \emph{quantum disclosure of secrets (QDS)} protocol between a classical sender and a receiver, where a quantum receiver learns a secret message in the third round but, assuming LWE, a classical receiver does not.

#### Coauthors

- Fangqi Dong (2)
- Zihan Hao (2)
- Wei-Kai Lin (1)
- Alex Lombardi (1)
- Ethan Mook (4)
- Willy Quach (1)
- Hoeteck Wee (1)
- Daniel Wichs (4)