International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Mark Schultz

ORCID: 0000-0001-5761-9662


Hintless Single-Server Private Information Retrieval
We present two new constructions for private information retrieval (PIR) in the classical setting where the clients do not need to do any preprocessing or store any database dependent information, and the server does not need to store any client-dependent information. Our first construction (HintlessPIR) eliminates the client preprocessing step from the recent LWE-based SimplePIR (Henzinger et. al., USENIX Security 2023) by outsourcing the ``hint'' related computation to the server, leveraging a new concept of \emph{homomorphic encryption with composable preprocessing}. We realize this concept with RLWE encryption schemes, and by leveraging the composibility of this technique we are able to preprocess almost all the expensive parts of the homomorphic computation and reuse them across multiple protocol executions. As a concrete application, we propose highly efficient matrix vector multiplication that allows us to build HintlessPIR. For a database of size 8GB, HintlessPIR achieves throughput about 6.37GB/s without requiring transmission of any client or server state. We additionally formalize the matrix vector multiplication protocol as a novel primitive that we call LinPIR, which may be of independent interest. In our second construction (TensorPIR) we reduce the communication of HintlessPIR from square root to cubic root in the database size. We show how to use RLWE encryption with preprocessing to outsource LWE decryption for ciphertexts generated by homomorphic multiplications. This allows the server to do more complex processing using a more compact query under LWE. We implement and benchmark HintlessPIR which achieves better concrete costs than TensorPIR for a large set of databases of interest. We show that it improves the communication of recent preprocessing constructions when clients do not have large numbers of queries or the database updates frequently. The computation cost for removing the hint is small and decreases as the database becomes larger, and it is always more efficient than other constructions with client hints such as Spiral PIR (Menon and Wu, S&P 2022). In the setting of anonymous queries we also improve on Spiral's communication.
Error Correction and Ciphertext Quantization in Lattice Cryptography
Mark Schultz Daniele Micciancio
Recent work in the design of rate $1 - o(1)$ lattice-based cryptosystems have used two distinct design paradigms, namely replacing the noise-tolerant encoding $m \mapsto (q/2)m$ present in many lattice-based cryptosystems with a more efficient encoding, and post-processing traditional lattice-based ciphertexts with a lossy compression algorithm, using a technique very similar to the technique of ``vector quantization'' within coding theory. We introduce a framework for the design of lattice-based encryption that captures both of these paradigms, and prove information-theoretic rate bounds within this framework. These bounds separate the settings of trivial and non-trivial quantization, and show the impossibility of rate $1 - o(1)$ encryption using both trivial quantization and polynomial modulus. They furthermore put strong limits on the rate of constructions that utilize lattices built by tensoring a lattice of small dimension with $\Zset^k$, which is ubiquitous in the literature. We additionally introduce a new cryptosystem, that matches the rate of the highest-rate currently known scheme, while encoding messages with a ``gadget'', which may be useful for constructions of Fully Homomorphic Encryption.