## CryptoDB

### Yizhou Yao

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2024

CRYPTO

More Efficient Zero-Knowledge Protocols over $\mathbb{Z}_{2^k}$ via Galois Rings
Abstract

A recent line of works on zero-knowledge (ZK) protocols with a vector oblivious linear function evaluation (VOLE)-based offline phase provides a new paradigm for scalable ZK protocols featuring fast proving and small prover memory. Very recently, Baum et al. (Crypto'23) proposed the VOLE-in-the-head technique, allowing such protocols to become publicly verifiable. Many practically efficient protocols for proving circuit satisfiability over any Galois field are implemented, while protocols over rings $\mathbb{Z}_{2^k}$ are significantly lagging behind, with only a proof-of-concept pioneering work called Appenzeller to Brie (CCS'21) and a first proposal called Moz$\mathbb{Z}_{2^k}$arella (Crypto'22). The ring $\mathbb{Z}_{2^{32}}$ or $\mathbb{Z}_{2^{64}}$, though highly important (it captures computation in real-life programming and the computer architectures such as CPU words), presents non-trivial difficulties because, for example, unlike Galois fields $\mathbb{F}_{2^{k}}$, the fraction of units in $\mathbb{Z}_{2^{k}}$ is $1/2$. In this work, we first construct ZK protocols over a high degree Galois ring extension of $\mathbb{Z}_{2^{k}}$ (fraction of units close to $1$) and then convert them to $\mathbb{Z}_{2^k}$ efficiently using amortization techniques. Our results greatly change the landscape of ZK protocols over~$\mathbb{Z}_{2^k}$.
(1) We propose a competing ZK protocol that has many advantages over the state-of-the-art Moz$\mathbb{Z}_{2^k}$arella. We remove the undesirable dependence of communication complexity on the security parameter, and achieve communication complexity {\em strictly} linear in the circuit size. Furthermore, our protocol has better concrete efficiency. For $40,80$ bits soundness on circuits over $\mathbb{Z}_{2^{32}}$ and $\mathbb{Z}_{2^{64}}$, we offer $1.15\times$--$2.9\times$ improvements in communication.
(2) Inspired by the recently proposed interactive message authentication code technique (Weng et al., CCS'22), we construct a constant round ZK protocol over $\mathbb{Z}_{2^k}$ with sublinear (in the circuit size) communication complexity, which was previously achieved only over fields.
(3) We show that the pseudorandom correlation generator approach can be adapted to efficiently implement VOLE over Galois rings, with analysis of the hardness of underlying LPN assumptions over Galois rings.
(4) We adapt the VOLE-in-the-head technique to make it work for $\mathbb{Z}_{2^k}$, yielding {\em publicly verifiable} non-interactive ZK protocols over $\mathbb{Z}_{2^k}$ which preserve most of the efficiency metrics of the VOLE-based ZK protocols.

2024

ASIACRYPT

Interactive Line-Point Zero-Knowledge with Sublinear Communication and Linear Computation
Abstract

Studies of vector oblivious linear evaluation (VOLE)-based zero-knowledge (ZK) protocols flourish in recent years. Such ZK protocols feature optimal prover computation and a flexibility for handling arithmetic circuits over arbitrary fields. However, most of them have linear communication, which constitutes a bottleneck for handling large statements in a slow network. The pioneer work AntMan (CCS'22), achieved sublinear communication for the first time within VOLE-based ZK, but lost the advantage of fast proving. In this work, we propose two new VOLE-based ZK constructions that achieve sublinear communication and linear computation, simultaneously. Let $\mathcal{C}$ be a circuit with size $S$, input size $n$, and depth $d$. In particular, our first ZK, specialized for layered circuits, has communication $\bigO{n+d\log{S}}$, while our second ZK can be used to prove general circuits and has communication $\bigO{n+d\log{S}+d^2}$.
Our results are obtained by introducing the powerful sum-check techniques from the mature line of works on interactive proofs into the context of VOLE-based ZK for the first time. Reminiscent of the {\em non-interactive} line-point zero-knowledge proof system (ITC'21), we introduce an {\em interactive line-point zero-knowledge} (ILPZK) proof system, which serves as a bridge to VOLE-based ZK protocols. In addition, our works also enrich the studies of ZK based on interactive proofs, with new interesting features (e.g., having information-theoretic UC-security, naturally supporting any field) achieved.

#### Coauthors

- fuchun lin (2)
- Chaoping Xing (2)
- Yizhou Yao (2)