Analysis of a Subset Sum Randomizer
In  an efficient pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) with provable security is described. Its security is based on the hardness of the subset sum or knapsack problem. In this paper we refine these ideas to design a PRNG with independent seed and output generation. This independence allows for greater parallelism, design flexibility, and possibly greater security.
We consider a "mobile adversary" which may corrupt all participants throughout the lifetime of the system in a non-monotonic fashion (i.e. recoveries are possible) but the adversary is unable to corrupt too many participants during any short time period. Schemes resiliant to such adverasry are called proactive. We present a proactive RSA system in which a threshold of servers applies the RSA signature (or decryption) function in a distributed manner. Employing new combinatorial and elementary number theoretic techniques, our protocol enables the dynamic updating of the servers (which hold the RSA key distributively); it is secure even when a linear number of the servers are corrupted during any time period; it efficiently "self-maintains" the security of the function and its messages (ciphertexts or signatures); and it enables continuous availability, namely, correct function application using the shared key is possible at any time.