International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Patrik Ekdahl


New Circuit Minimization Techniques for Smaller and Faster AES SBoxes 📺
Alexander Maximov Patrik Ekdahl
In this paper we consider various methods and techniques to find the smallest circuit realizing a given linear transformation on n input signals and m output signals, with a constraint of a maximum depth, maxD, of the circuit. Additional requirements may include that input signals can arrive to the circuit with different delays, and output signals may be requested to be ready at a different depth. We apply these methods and also improve previous results in order to find hardware circuits for forward, inverse, and combined AES SBoxes, and for each of them we provide the fastest and smallest combinatorial circuits. Additionally, we propose a novel technique with “floating multiplexers” to minimize the circuit for the combined SBox, where we have two different linear matrices (forward and inverse) combined with multiplexers. The resulting AES SBox solutions are the fastest and smallest to our knowledge.
A new SNOW stream cipher called SNOW-V 📺
In this paper we are proposing a new member in the SNOW family of stream ciphers, called SNOW-V. The motivation is to meet an industry demand of very high speed encryption in a virtualized environment, something that can be expected to be relevant in a future 5G mobile communication system. We are revising the SNOW 3G architecture to be competitive in such a pure software environment, making use of both existing acceleration instructions for the AES encryption round function as well as the ability of modern CPUs to handle large vectors of integers (e.g. SIMD instructions). We have kept the general design from SNOW 3G, in terms of linear feedback shift register (LFSR) and Finite State Machine (FSM), but both entities are updated to better align with vectorized implementations. The LFSR part is new and operates 8 times the speed of the FSM. We have furthermore increased the total state size by using 128-bit registers in the FSM, we use the full AES encryption round function in the FSM update, and, finally, the initialization phase includes a masking with key bits at its end. The result is an algorithm generally much faster than AES-256 and with expected security not worse than AES-256.