## CryptoDB

### Yanbin Pan

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2024

TCHES

Hints from Hertz: Dynamic Frequency Scaling Side-Channel Analysis of Number Theoretic Transform in Lattice-Based KEMs
Abstract

Number Theoretic Transform (NTT) has been widely used in accelerating computations in lattice-based cryptography. However, attackers can potentially launch power analysis targeting the NTT because it is one of the most time-consuming parts of the implementation. This extended time frame provides a natural window of opportunity for attackers. In this paper, we investigate the first CPU frequency leakage (Hertzbleed-like) attacks against NTT in lattice-based KEMs. Our key observation is that different inputs to NTT incur different Hamming weights in its output and intermediate layers. By measuring the CPU frequency during the execution of NTT, we propose a simple yet effective attack idea to find the input to NTT that triggers NTT processing data with significantly low Hamming weight. We further apply our attack idea to real-world applications that are built upon NTT: CPAsecure Kyber without Compression and Decompression functions, and CCA-secure NTTRU. This leads us to extract information or frequency hints about the secret key. Integrating these hints into the LWE-estimator framework, we estimate a minimum of 35% security loss caused by the leakage. The frequency and timing measurements on the Reference and AVX2 implementations of NTT in both Kyber and NTTRU align well with our theoretical analysis, confirming the existence of frequency side-channel leakage in NTT. It is important to emphasize that our observation is not limited to a specific implementation but rather the algorithm on which NTT is based. Therefore, our results call for more attention to the analysis of power leakage against NTT in lattice-based cryptography.

2024

ASIACRYPT

Cryptanalysis of Rank-2 Module-LIP with Symplectic Automorphisms
Abstract

At Eurocrypt'24, Mureau et al. formally defined the Lattice Isomorphism Problem for module lattices (module-LIP) in a number field $\mathbb{K}$, and proposed a heuristic randomized algorithm solving module-LIP for modules of rank 2 in $\mathbb{K}^2$ with a totally real number field $\mathbb{K}$, which runs in classical polynomial time for a large class of modules and a large class of totally real number field under some reasonable number theoretic assumptions. In this paper, by introducing a (pseudo) symplectic automorphism of the module, we successfully reduce the problem of solving module-LIP over CM number field to the problem of finding certain symplectic automorphism. Furthermore, we show that a weak (pseudo) symplectic automorphism can be computed efficiently, which immediately turns out to be the desired automorphism when the module is in a totally real number field. This directly results in a provable deterministic polynomial-time algorithm solving module-LIP for rank-2 modules in $\mathbb{K}^2$ where $\mathbb{K}$ is a totally real number field, without any assumptions or restrictions on the modules and the totally real number fields. Moreover, the weak symplectic automorphism can also be utilized to invalidate the omSVP assumption employed in HAWK's forgery security analysis, although it does not yield any actual attacks against HAWK itself.

2021

EUROCRYPT

On the ideal shortest vector problem over random rational primes
📺
Abstract

Any non-zero ideal in a number field can be factored into a product of prime ideals. In this paper we report a surprising connection between the complexity of the shortest vector problem (SVP) of prime ideals in number fields and their decomposition groups. When applying the result to number fields popular in lattice based cryptosystems, such as power-of-two cyclotomic fields, we show that a majority of rational primes lie under prime ideals admitting a polynomial time algorithm for SVP. Although the shortest vector problem of ideal lattices underpins the security of the Ring-LWE cryptosystem, this work does not break Ring-LWE, since the security reduction is from the worst case ideal SVP to the average case Ring-LWE, and it is one-way.

2021

ASIACRYPT

A Systematic Approach and Analysis of Key Mismatch Attacks on Lattice-Based NIST Candidate KEMs
📺
Abstract

Research on key mismatch attacks against lattice-based KEMs is an important part of the cryptographic assessment of the ongoing NIST standardization of post-quantum cryptography. There have been a number of these attacks to date. However, a unified method to evaluate these KEMs' resilience under key mismatch attacks is still missing. Since the key index of efficiency is the number of queries needed to successfully mount such an attack, in this paper, we propose and develop a systematic approach to find lower bounds on the minimum average number of queries needed for such attacks. Our basic idea is to transform the problem of finding the lower bound of queries into finding an optimal binary recovery tree (BRT), where the computations of the lower bounds become essentially the computations of a certain Shannon entropy. The optimal BRT approach also enables us to understand why, for some lattice-based NIST candidate KEMs, there is a big gap between the theoretical bounds and bounds observed in practical attacks, in terms of the number of queries needed. This further leads us to propose a generic improvement method for these existing attacks, which are confirmed by our experiments. Moreover, our proposed method could be directly used to improve the side-channel attacks against CCA-secure NIST candidate KEMs.

2019

CRYPTO

New Results on Modular Inversion Hidden Number Problem and Inversive Congruential Generator
📺
Abstract

The Modular Inversion Hidden Number Problem (MIHNP), introduced by Boneh, Halevi and Howgrave-Graham in Asiacrypt 2001, is briefly described as follows: Let $${\mathrm {MSB}}_{\delta }(z)$$ refer to the $$\delta $$ most significant bits of z. Given many samples $$\left( t_{i}, {\mathrm {MSB}}_{\delta }((\alpha + t_{i})^{-1} \bmod {p})\right) $$ for random $$t_i \in \mathbb {Z}_p$$, the goal is to recover the hidden number $$\alpha \in \mathbb {Z}_p$$. MIHNP is an important class of Hidden Number Problem.In this paper, we revisit the Coppersmith technique for solving a class of modular polynomial equations, which is respectively derived from the recovering problem of the hidden number $$\alpha $$ in MIHNP. For any positive integer constant d, let integer $$n=d^{3+o(1)}$$. Given a sufficiently large modulus p, $$n+1$$ samples of MIHNP, we present a heuristic algorithm to recover the hidden number $$\alpha $$ with a probability close to 1 when $$\delta /\log _2 p>\frac{1}{d\,+\,1}+o(\frac{1}{d})$$. The overall time complexity of attack is polynomial in $$\log _2 p$$, where the complexity of the LLL algorithm grows as $$d^{\mathcal {O}(d)}$$ and the complexity of the Gröbner basis computation grows as $$(2d)^{\mathcal {O}(n^2)}$$. When $$d> 2$$, this asymptotic bound outperforms $$\delta /\log _2 p>\frac{1}{3}$$ which is the asymptotic bound proposed by Boneh, Halevi and Howgrave-Graham in Asiacrypt 2001. It is the first time that a better bound for solving MIHNP is given, which implies that the conjecture that MIHNP is hard whenever $$\delta /\log _2 p<\frac{1}{3}$$ is broken. Moreover, we also get the best result for attacking the Inversive Congruential Generator (ICG) up to now.

#### Coauthors

- Qi Cheng (1)
- Chi Cheng (1)
- Chen-Mou Cheng (1)
- Jintai Ding (1)
- Gengran Hu (1)
- Lei Hu (2)
- Kaijie Jiang (1)
- Hengyi Luo (1)
- Yanbin Pan (6)
- Yu Qin (1)
- Santanu Sarkar (1)
- Nick Wadleigh (1)
- Anyu Wang (1)
- Huaxiong Wang (1)
- Yingchen Wang (1)
- Jian Weng (1)
- Jun Xu (2)
- Zilong Yang (1)
- Tianrun Yu (1)
- Feng Zhang (1)
- Xiaohan Zhang (1)