A Hybrid-CPU-FPGA-based Solution to the Recovery of Sha256crypt-hashed Passwords 📺
This paper presents an accelerator design for the password recovery of sha256crypt based on hybrid CPU-FPGA devices. By applying the brute-force attack computation model proposed in this paper, we decompose the sha256crypt function into two types of operations, namely the data dispatching and the block transforming. The data dispatching operation generates message blocks and the block transforming operation transforms message blocks into digests. These two operations are efficiently accelerated by the customized data dispatch unit and the pipelined block transform unit, respectively. Difficulties of adopting the pipeline technique are addressed also with the following techniques. The group scheduling is used to solve the data dependency that stalls the pipeline. The look-ahead execution eliminates the uncertainty of the execution path. The data path pruning and spatial-temporal multiplexing reduce the resource overhead of non-computing units.The proposed accelerator design is implemented and evaluated on the Xilinx Zynq-7000 XC7Z030-3 SoC. Our experimental results show that the proposed accelerator can improve energy efficiency by 2.54x over the state-of-the-art password recovery tool Hashcat running on an NVIDIA GTX1080Ti GPU. Compared with the pure FPGA-based implementation in John-the-Ripper, the proposed accelerator improves energy efficiency by 1.64x and improves resource efficiency by 1.69x.
CCA-Secure PRE Scheme without Random Oracles
In a proxy re-encryption scheme, a semi-trusted proxy can transform a ciphertext under Alice's public key into another ciphertext that Bob can decrypt. However, the proxy cannot access the plaintext. Due to its transformation property, proxy re-encryption can be used in many applications, such as encrypted email forwarding. In this paper, by using the techniques of Canetti-Hohenberger and Kurosawa-Desmedt, we propose a new single-use unidirectional proxy re-encryption scheme. Our proposal is secure against chosen ciphertext attack (CCA) and collusion attack in the standard model.
CCA-Secure PRE Scheme without Public Verifiability
In a proxy re-encryption (PRE) scheme, a semi-trusted proxy can transform a ciphertext under Alice's public key into another ciphertext that Bob can decrypt. However, the proxy cannot access the plaintext. Due to its transformation property, PRE can be used in many applications, such as encrypted email forwarding. All the existing CCA-secure PRE schemes have a crucial property: the public verifiability of the original ciphertext, i.e., everyone can check the validity of the original ciphertext. In this paper, we propose a novel CCA-secure PRE scheme without public verifiability. This proposal is proven-secure based on the DDH assumption in the standard model. To the best of our knowledge, our proposal is the first CCA-secure unidirectional PRE scheme without pairings in the standard model, which answers an open problem in the PRE field.