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Paper: TFHE: Fast Fully Homomorphic Encryption Over the Torus

Authors:
Ilaria Chillotti
Nicolas Gama
Mariya Georgieva
Malika Izabachène
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DOI: 10.1007/s00145-019-09319-x
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Abstract: This work describes a fast fully homomorphic encryption scheme over the torus (TFHE) that revisits, generalizes and improves the fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) based on GSW and its ring variants. The simplest FHE schemes consist in bootstrapped binary gates. In this gate bootstrapping mode, we show that the scheme FHEW of Ducas and Micciancio (Eurocrypt, 2015) can be expressed only in terms of external product between a GSW and an LWE ciphertext. As a consequence of this result and of other optimizations, we decrease the running time of their bootstrapping from 690 to 13 ms single core, using 16 MB bootstrapping key instead of 1 GB, and preserving the security parameter. In leveled homomorphic mode, we propose two methods to manipulate packed data, in order to decrease the ciphertext expansion and to optimize the evaluation of lookup tables and arbitrary functions in $${\mathrm {RingGSW}}$$RingGSW-based homomorphic schemes. We also extend the automata logic, introduced in Gama et al. (Eurocrypt, 2016), to the efficient leveled evaluation of weighted automata, and present a new homomorphic counter called $$\mathrm {TBSR}$$TBSR, that supports all the elementary operations that occur in a multiplication. These improvements speed up the evaluation of most arithmetic functions in a packed leveled mode, with a noise overhead that remains additive. We finally present a new circuit bootstrapping that converts $$\mathsf {LWE}$$LWE ciphertexts into low-noise $${\mathrm {RingGSW}}$$RingGSW ciphertexts in just 137 ms, which makes the leveled mode of TFHE composable and which is fast enough to speed up arithmetic functions, compared to the gate bootstrapping approach. Finally, we provide an alternative practical analysis of LWE based schemes, which directly relates the security parameter to the error rate of LWE and the entropy of the LWE secret key, and we propose concrete parameter sets and timing comparison for all our constructions.
BibTeX
@article{jofc-2019-29498,
  title={TFHE: Fast Fully Homomorphic Encryption Over the Torus},
  journal={Journal of Cryptology},
  publisher={Springer},
  volume={},
  doi={10.1007/s00145-019-09319-x},
  author={Ilaria Chillotti and Nicolas Gama and Mariya Georgieva and Malika Izabachène},
  year=2019
}