## CryptoDB

### Ilaria Chillotti

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2023

JOFC

Parameter Optimization and Larger Precision for (T)FHE
Abstract

In theory, fully homomorphic encryption schemes allow users to compute any operation over encrypted data. However in practice, one of the major difficulties lies into determining secure cryptographic parameters that minimize the computational cost of evaluating a circuit. In this paper, we propose a solution to solve this open problem. Even though it mainly focuses on TFHE, the method is generic enough to be adapted to all the current FHE schemes. TFHE is particularly suited, for small precision messages, from Boolean to 5-bit integers. It is possible to instantiate bigger integers with this scheme; however, the computational cost quickly becomes unpractical. By studying the parameter optimization problem for TFHE, we observed that if one wants to evaluate operations on larger integers, the best way to do it is by encrypting the message into several ciphertexts, instead of considering bigger parameters for a single ciphertext. In the literature, one can find some constructions going in that direction, which are mainly based on radix and CRT representations of the message. However, they still present some limitations, such as inefficient algorithms to evaluate generic homomorphic lookup tables and no solution to work with arbitrary modulus for the message space. We overcome these limitations by proposing two new ways to evaluate homomorphic modular reductions for any modulo in the radix approach, by introducing on the one hand a new hybrid representation, and on the other hand by exploiting a new efficient algorithm to evaluate generic lookup tables on several ciphertexts. The latter is not only a programmable bootstrapping but does not require any padding bit, as needed in the original TFHE bootstrapping. We additionally provide benchmarks to support our results in practice. Finally, we formalize the parameter selection as an optimization problem, and we introduce a framework based on it enabling easy and efficient translation of an arithmetic circuit into an FHE graph of operation along with its optimal set of cryptographic parameters. This framework offers a plethora of features: fair comparisons between FHE operators, study of contexts that are favorable to a given FHE strategy/algorithm, failure probability selection for the entire use-case and so on.

2021

ASIACRYPT

Improved Programmable Bootstrapping with Larger Precision and Efficient Arithmetic Circuits for TFHE
📺
Abstract

Fully Homomorphic Encryption} (FHE) schemes enable to compute over encrypted data.
Among them, TFHE [CGGI17] has the great advantage of offering an efficient method for bootstrapping noisy ciphertexts, i.e., reduce the noise.
Indeed, homomorphic computation increases the noise in ciphertexts and might compromise the encrypted message.
TFHE bootstrapping, in addition to reducing the noise, also evaluates (for free) univariate functions expressed as look-up tables.
It however requires to have the most significant bit of the plaintext to be known a priori, resulting in the loss of one bit of space to store messages.
Furthermore it represents a non negligible overhead in terms of computation in many use cases.
In this paper, we propose a solution to overcome this limitation, that we call Programmable Bootstrapping Without Padding (WoP-PBS).
This approach relies on two building blocks.
The first one is the multiplication à la BFV [FV12] that we incorporate into TFHE.
This is possible thanks to a thorough noise analysis showing that correct multiplications can be computed using practical TFHE parameters.
The second building block is the generalization of TFHE bootstrapping introduced in this paper.
It offers the flexibility to select any chunk of bits in an encrypted plaintext during a bootstrap.
It also enables to evaluate many LUTs at the same time when working with small enough precision.
All these improvements are particularly helpful in some applications such as the evaluation of Boolean circuits (where a bootstrap is no longer required in each evaluated gate) and, more generally, in the efficient evaluation of arithmetic circuits even with large integers.
Those results improve TFHE circuit bootstrapping as well.
Moreover, we show that bootstrapping large precision integers is now possible using much smaller parameters than those obtained by scaling TFHE ones.

2019

EUROCRYPT

Improved Bootstrapping for Approximate Homomorphic Encryption
📺
Abstract

Since Cheon et al. introduced a homomorphic encryption scheme for approximate arithmetic (Asiacrypt ’17), it has been recognized as suitable for important real-life usecases of homomorphic encryption, including training of machine learning models over encrypted data. A follow up work by Cheon et al. (Eurocrypt ’18) described an approximate bootstrapping procedure for the scheme. In this work, we improve upon the previous bootstrapping result. We improve the amortized bootstrapping time per plaintext slot by two orders of magnitude, from $$\sim $$∼1 s to $$\sim $$∼0.01 s. To achieve this result, we adopt a smart level-collapsing technique for evaluating DFT-like linear transforms on a ciphertext. Also, we replace the Taylor approximation of the sine function with a more accurate and numerically stable Chebyshev approximation, and design a modified version of the Paterson-Stockmeyer algorithm for fast evaluation of Chebyshev polynomials over encrypted data.

2019

JOFC

TFHE: Fast Fully Homomorphic Encryption Over the Torus
Abstract

This work describes a fast fully homomorphic encryption scheme over the torus (TFHE) that revisits, generalizes and improves the fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) based on GSW and its ring variants. The simplest FHE schemes consist in bootstrapped binary gates. In this gate bootstrapping mode, we show that the scheme FHEW of Ducas and Micciancio (Eurocrypt, 2015) can be expressed only in terms of external product between a GSW and an LWE ciphertext. As a consequence of this result and of other optimizations, we decrease the running time of their bootstrapping from 690 to 13 ms single core, using 16 MB bootstrapping key instead of 1 GB, and preserving the security parameter. In leveled homomorphic mode, we propose two methods to manipulate packed data, in order to decrease the ciphertext expansion and to optimize the evaluation of lookup tables and arbitrary functions in $${\mathrm {RingGSW}}$$RingGSW-based homomorphic schemes. We also extend the automata logic, introduced in Gama et al. (Eurocrypt, 2016), to the efficient leveled evaluation of weighted automata, and present a new homomorphic counter called $$\mathrm {TBSR}$$TBSR, that supports all the elementary operations that occur in a multiplication. These improvements speed up the evaluation of most arithmetic functions in a packed leveled mode, with a noise overhead that remains additive. We finally present a new circuit bootstrapping that converts $$\mathsf {LWE}$$LWE ciphertexts into low-noise $${\mathrm {RingGSW}}$$RingGSW ciphertexts in just 137 ms, which makes the leveled mode of TFHE composable and which is fast enough to speed up arithmetic functions, compared to the gate bootstrapping approach. Finally, we provide an alternative practical analysis of LWE based schemes, which directly relates the security parameter to the error rate of LWE and the entropy of the LWE secret key, and we propose concrete parameter sets and timing comparison for all our constructions.

2019

ASIACRYPT

Multi-Key Homomorphic Encryption from TFHE
Abstract

In this paper, we propose a Multi-Key Homomorphic Encryption (MKHE) scheme by generalizing the low-latency homomorphic encryption by Chillotti et al. (ASIACRYPT 2016). Our scheme can evaluate a binary gate on ciphertexts encrypted under different keys followed by a bootstrapping.The biggest challenge to meeting the goal is to design a multiplication between a bootstrapping key of a single party and a multi-key RLWE ciphertext. We propose two different algorithms for this hybrid product. Our first method improves the ciphertext extension by Mukherjee and Wichs (EUROCRYPT 2016) to provide better performance. The other one is a whole new approach which has advantages in storage, complexity, and noise growth.Compared to previous work, our construction is more efficient in terms of both asymptotic and concrete complexity. The length of ciphertexts and the computational costs of a binary gate grow linearly and quadratically on the number of parties, respectively. We provide experimental results demonstrating the running time of a homomorphic NAND gate with bootstrapping. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt in the literature to implement an MKHE scheme.

#### Program Committees

- PKC 2022
- Asiacrypt 2022
- Crypto 2020

#### Coauthors

- Loris Bergerat (1)
- Anas Boudi (1)
- Quentin Bourgerie (1)
- Hao Chen (2)
- Ilaria Chillotti (7)
- Nicolas Gama (3)
- Mariya Georgieva (3)
- Malika Izabachène (3)
- Damien Ligier (2)
- Jean-Baptiste Orfila (2)
- Yongsoo Song (2)
- Samuel Tap (2)