International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Bootstrapping for BGV and BFV Revisited

Robin Geelen
Frederik Vercauteren
DOI: 10.1007/s00145-023-09454-6
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Abstract: We unify the state-of-the-art bootstrapping algorithms for BGV and BFV in a single framework and show that both schemes can be bootstrapped with identical complexity. This result corrects a claim by Chen and Han (Eurocrypt 2018) that BFV is more efficient to bootstrap than BGV. We also fix an error in their optimized procedure for power-of-two cyclotomics, which occurs for some parameter sets. Our analysis is simpler, yet more general than earlier work, in that it simultaneously covers both BGV and BFV. Furthermore, we also design and implement a high-level open source software library for bootstrapping in the Magma Computer Algebra System. It is the first library to support both BGV and BFV bootstrapping in full generality, with all recent techniques (including the above fixes) and trade-offs.
  title={Bootstrapping for BGV and BFV Revisited},
  journal={Journal of Cryptology},
  author={Robin Geelen and Frederik Vercauteren},