## CryptoDB

### Frederik Vercauteren

#### ORCID: 0000-0002-7208-9599

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2023

EUROCRYPT

On Polynomial Functions Modulo $p^e$ and Faster Bootstrapping for Homomorphic Encryption
Abstract

In this paper, we perform a systematic study of functions $f: \mathbb{Z}_{p^e} \to \mathbb{Z}_{p^e}$ and categorize those functions that can be represented by a polynomial with integer coefficients. More specifically, we cover the following properties: necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of an integer polynomial representation; computation of such a representation; and the complete set of equivalent polynomials that represent a given function.
As an application, we use the newly developed theory to speed up bootstrapping for the BGV and BFV homomorphic encryption schemes. The crucial ingredient underlying our improvements is the existence of null polynomials, i.e. non-zero polynomials that evaluate to zero in every point. We exploit the rich algebraic structure of these null polynomials to find better representations of the digit extraction function, which is the main bottleneck in bootstrapping. As such, we obtain sparse polynomials that have 50% fewer coefficients than the original ones. In addition, we propose a new method to decompose digit extraction as a series of polynomial evaluations. This lowers the time complexity from $\mathcal{O}(\sqrt{pe})$ to $\mathcal{O}(\sqrt{p}\sqrt[^4]{e})$ for digit extraction modulo $p^e$, at the cost of a slight increase in multiplicative depth. Overall, our implementation in HElib shows a significant speedup of a factor up to 2.6 over the state-of-the-art.

2023

JOFC

Bootstrapping for BGV and BFV Revisited
Abstract

We unify the state-of-the-art bootstrapping algorithms for BGV and BFV in a single framework and show that both schemes can be bootstrapped with identical complexity. This result corrects a claim by Chen and Han (Eurocrypt 2018) that BFV is more efficient to bootstrap than BGV. We also fix an error in their optimized procedure for power-of-two cyclotomics, which occurs for some parameter sets. Our analysis is simpler, yet more general than earlier work, in that it simultaneously covers both BGV and BFV. Furthermore, we also design and implement a high-level open source software library for bootstrapping in the Magma Computer Algebra System. It is the first library to support both BGV and BFV bootstrapping in full generality, with all recent techniques (including the above fixes) and trade-offs.

2023

CRYPTO

Weak instances of class group action based cryptography via self-pairings
Abstract

In this paper we study non-trivial self-pairings with cyclic domains that are compatible with isogenies between elliptic curves oriented by an imaginary quadratic order $\mathcal{O}$. We prove that the order $m$ of such a self-pairing necessarily satisfies $m \mid \Delta_{\mathcal{O}}$ (and even $2m \mid \Delta_{\mathcal{O}} $ if $4 \mid \Delta_{\mathcal{O}}$ and $4m \mid \Delta_{\mathcal{O}}$ if $8 \mid \Delta_{\mathcal{O}}$) and is not a multiple of the field characteristic. Conversely, for each $m$ satisfying these necessary conditions, we construct a family of non-trivial cyclic self-pairings of order $m$ that are compatible with oriented isogenies, based on generalized Weil and Tate pairings.
As an application, we identify weak instances of class group actions on elliptic curves assuming the degree of the secret isogeny is known. More in detail, we show that if $m^2 \mid \Delta_{\mathcal{O}}$ for some prime power $m$ then given two primitively $\mathcal{O}$-oriented elliptic curves $(E, \iota)$ and $(E',\iota') = [\mathfrak{a}](E,\iota)$ connected by an unknown invertible ideal $\mathfrak{a} \subseteq \mathcal{O}$, we can recover $\mathfrak{a}$ essentially at the cost of a discrete logarithm computation in a group of order $m^2$, assuming the norm of $\mathfrak{a}$ is given and is smaller than $m^2$. We give concrete instances, involving ordinary elliptic curves over finite fields, where this turns into a polynomial time attack.
Finally, we show that these self-pairings simplify known results on the decisional Diffie-Hellman problem for class group actions on oriented elliptic curves.

2023

TCHES

BASALISC: Programmable Hardware Accelerator for BGV Fully Homomorphic Encryption
Abstract

Fully Homomorphic Encryption (FHE) allows for secure computation on encrypted data. Unfortunately, huge memory size, computational cost and bandwidth requirements limit its practicality. We present BASALISC, an architecture family of hardware accelerators that aims to substantially accelerate FHE computations in the cloud. BASALISC is the first to implement the BGV scheme with fully-packed bootstrapping – the noise removal capability necessary for arbitrary-depth computation. It supports a customized version of bootstrapping that can be instantiated with hardware multipliers optimized for area and power.BASALISC is a three-abstraction-layer RISC architecture, designed for a 1 GHz ASIC implementation and underway toward 150mm2 die tape-out in a 12nm GF process. BASALISC’s four-layer memory hierarchy includes a two-dimensional conflict-free inner memory layer that enables 32 Tb/s radix-256 NTT computations without pipeline stalls. Its conflict-resolution permutation hardware is generalized and re-used to compute BGV automorphisms without throughput penalty. BASALISC also has a custom multiply-accumulate unit to accelerate BGV key switching.The BASALISC toolchain comprises a custom compiler and a joint performance and correctness simulator. To evaluate BASALISC, we study its physical realizability, emulate and formally verify its core functional units, and we study its performance on a set of benchmarks. Simulation results show a speedup of more than 5,000× over HElib – a popular software FHE library.

2023

ASIACRYPT

A polynomial time attack on instances of M-SIDH and FESTA
Abstract

The recent devastating attacks on SIDH rely on the fact that the protocol reveals the images $\varphi(P)$ and $\varphi(Q)$ of the secret isogeny $\varphi : E_0 \rightarrow E$ on a basis $\{P, Q\}$ of the $N$-torsion subgroup $E_0[N]$ where $N^2 > \deg(\varphi)$. To thwart this attack, two recent proposals, M-SIDH and FESTA, proceed by only revealing the images upto unknown scalars $\lambda_1, \lambda_2 \in \mathbb{Z}_N^\times$, i.e., only $\lambda_1 \varphi(P)$ and $\lambda_2 \varphi(Q)$ are revealed, where $\lambda_1 = \lambda_2$ for M-SIDH and $\lambda_1 = \lambda_2^{-1}$ for FESTA. Similar information is leaked in CSIDH since $\varphi$ maps the eigenspaces of Frobenius on $E_0$ to the corresponding eigenspaces on $E$.
In this paper, we introduce a new polynomial time attack that generalizes the well known "lollipop" attack and analyze how it applies to M-SIDH, FESTA and CSIDH. We show that M-SIDH can be broken in polynomial time whenever $E_0$ or $E$ is $\mathbb{F}_p$-rational, even when the endomorphism rings of $E_0$ and $E$ are unknown. This can be generalized to the case where the starting (or end) curve is not $\mathbb{F}_p$-rational, but is connected to its Frobenius conjugate by an isogeny of small degree.
For FESTA, where the curve $E_0$ is already $\mathbb{F}_p$-rational, we obtain a polynomial time attack under the added requirement that at least one of the basis points $P, Q$ spans an eigenspace of Frobenius, of an endomorphism of low degree, or of a composition of both. We note that the current implementation of FESTA does not choose such a basis. Since it is always possible to construct an endomorphism, typically of large degree, with either $P, Q$ an eigenvector, we conclude that FESTA with overstretched parameters is insecure.
Although the information leaked in CSIDH is very similar to FESTA, we show that our attack does not reveal any new information about the secret isogeny, i.e., we only learn that it is $\mathbb{F}_p$-rational, which is a priori knowledge.
Finally, we analyze if and how it would be possible to backdoor M-SIDH and FESTA by choosing system parameters that look inconspicuous, but in fact reduce to the special cases above via a secret isogeny chosen by the adversary.

2022

ASIACRYPT

Horizontal racewalking using radical isogenies
📺
Abstract

We address three main open problems concerning the use of radical isogenies, as presented by Castryck, Decru and Vercauteren at Asiacrypt 2020, in the computation of long chains of isogenies of fixed, small degree between elliptic curves over finite fields. Firstly, we present an interpolation method for finding radical isogeny formulae in a given degree N, which by-passes the need for factoring division polynomials over large function fields. Using this method, we are able to push the
range for which we have formulae at our disposal from N ≤ 13 to N ≤ 37. Secondly, using a combination of known techniques and ad-hoc manipulations, we derived optimized versions of these formulae for N ≤ 19, with some instances performing more than twice as fast as their counterparts from 2020. Thirdly, we solve the problem of understanding the correct choice of radical when walking along the surface between supersingular elliptic curves over Fp with p ≡ 7 mod 8; this is non-trivial for even N and was only settled for N = 4 by Onuki and Moriya at PKC 2022. We give a conjectural statement for all even N and prove it for N ≤ 14. The speed-ups obtained from these techniques are substantial: using 16-isogenies, the computation of long chains of 2-isogenies over 512-bit prime fields can be improved by a factor 3, and the previous implementation of CSIDH using radical isogenies can be sped up by about 12%.

2022

JOFC

Breaking the Decisional Diffie–Hellman Problem for Class Group Actions Using Genus Theory: Extended Version
Abstract

In this paper, we use genus theory to analyze the hardness of the decisional Diffie–Hellman problem for ideal class groups of imaginary quadratic orders acting on sets of elliptic curves through isogenies (DDH–CGA). Such actions are used in the Couveignes–Rostovtsev–Stolbunov protocol and in CSIDH. Concretely, genus theory equips every imaginary quadratic order $$\mathcal {O}$$ O with a set of assigned characters $$\chi : {\text {cl}}(\mathcal {O}) \rightarrow \{ \pm 1\}$$ χ : cl ( O ) → { ± 1 } , and for each such character and every secret ideal class $$[\mathfrak {a}]$$ [ a ] connecting two public elliptic curves E and $$E' = [\mathfrak {a}] \star E$$ E ′ = [ a ] ⋆ E , we show how to compute $$\chi ([\mathfrak {a}])$$ χ ( [ a ] ) given only E and $$E'$$ E ′ , i.e., without knowledge of $$[\mathfrak {a}]$$ [ a ] . In practice, this breaks DDH–CGA as soon as the class number is even, which is true for a density 1 subset of all imaginary quadratic orders. For instance, our attack works very efficiently for all supersingular elliptic curves over $$\mathbb {F}_p$$ F p with $$p \equiv 1 \bmod 4$$ p ≡ 1 mod 4 . Our method relies on computing Tate pairings and walking down isogeny volcanoes. We also show that these ideas carry over, at least partly, to abelian varieties of arbitrary dimension. This is an extended version of the paper that was presented at Crypto 2020.

2021

JOFC

Actively Secure Setup for SPDZ
Abstract

We present the first actively secure, practical protocol to generate the distributed secret keys needed in the SPDZ offline protocol. As an added bonus our protocol results in the resulting distribution of the public and secret keys are such that the associated SHE ‘noise’ analysis is the same as if the distributed keys were generated by a trusted setup. We implemented the presented protocol for distributed BGV key generation within the SCALE-MAMBA framework. Our method makes use of a new method for creating doubly (or even more) authenticated bits in different MPC engines, which has applications in other areas of MPC-based secure computation. We were able to generate keys for two parties and a plaintext size of 64 bits in around 5 min, and a little more than 18 min for a 128-bit prime.

2020

EUROCRYPT

Rational isogenies from irrational endomorphisms
📺
Abstract

In this paper, we introduce a polynomial-time algorithm to compute a connecting $\mathcal{O}$-ideal between two supersingular elliptic curves over $\mathbb{F}_p$ with common $\mathbb{F}_p$-endomorphism ring $\mathcal{O}$, given a description of their full endomorphism rings. This algorithm provides a reduction of the security of the CSIDH cryptosystem to the problem of computing endomorphism rings of supersingular elliptic curves. A similar reduction for SIDH appeared at Asiacrypt 2016, but relies on totally different techniques. Furthermore, we also show that any supersingular elliptic curve constructed using the complex-multiplication method can be located precisely in the supersingular isogeny graph by explicitly deriving a path to a known base curve. This result prohibits the use of such curves as a building block for a hash function into the supersingular isogeny graph.

2020

CRYPTO

Breaking the decisional Diffie-Hellman problem for class group actions using genus theory
★
Abstract

In this paper, we use genus theory to analyze the hardness of the decisional Diffie--Hellman problem (DDH) for ideal class groups of imaginary quadratic orders, acting on sets of elliptic curves through isogenies; such actions are used in the Couveignes--Rostovtsev--Stolbunov protocol and in CSIDH. Concretely, genus theory equips every imaginary quadratic order $\mathcal{O}$ with a set of assigned characters $\chi : \text{cl}(\mathcal{O}) \to \{ \pm 1 \}$, and for each such character and every secret ideal class $[\mathfrak{a}]$ connecting two public elliptic curves $E$ and $E' = [\mathfrak{a}] \star E$, we show how to compute $\chi([\mathfrak{a}])$ given only $E$ and $E'$, i.e., without knowledge of $[\mathfrak{a}]$. In practice, this breaks DDH as soon as the class number is even, which is true for a density $1$ subset of all imaginary quadratic orders. For instance, our attack works very efficiently for all supersingular elliptic curves over $\mathbb{F}_p$ with $p \equiv 1 \bmod 4$. Our method relies on computing Tate pairings and walking down isogeny volcanoes.

2020

ASIACRYPT

Radical Isogenies
📺
Abstract

This paper introduces a new approach to computing isogenies called ``radical isogenies'' and a corresponding method to compute chains of $N$-isogenies that is very efficient for small $N$. The method is fully deterministic and completely avoids generating $N$-torsion points. It is based on explicit formulae for the coordinates of an $N$-torsion point $P'$ on the codomain of a cyclic $N$-isogeny $\varphi : E \to E'$, such that composing $\varphi$ with $E' \to E' / \langle P' \rangle$ yields a cyclic $N^2$-isogeny. These formulae are simple algebraic expressions in the coefficients of $E$, the coordinates of a generator $P$ of $\ker \varphi$, and an $N$th root $\sqrtN{\rho}$, where the radicand $\rho$ itself is given by an easily computable algebraic expression in the coefficients of $E$ and the coordinates of $P$. The formulae can be iterated and are particularly useful when computing chains of $N$-isogenies over a finite field $\F_q$ with $\gcd(q-1, N) = 1$, where taking an $N$th root is a simple exponentiation. Compared to the state-of-the-art, our method results in an order of magnitude speed-up for $N \leq 13$; for larger $N$, the advantage disappears due to the increasing complexity of the formulae. When applied to CSIDH, we obtain a speed-up of about $19 \%$ over the implementation by Bernstein, De Feo, Leroux and Smith for the CSURF-512 parameters.

2019

PKC

Decryption Failure Attacks on IND-CCA Secure Lattice-Based Schemes
Abstract

In this paper we investigate the impact of decryption failures on the chosen-ciphertext security of lattice-based primitives. We discuss a generic framework for secret key recovery based on decryption failures and present an attack on the NIST Post-Quantum Proposal ss-ntru-pke. Our framework is split in three parts: First, we use a technique to increase the failure rate of lattice-based schemes called failure boosting. Based on this technique we investigate the minimal effort for an adversary to obtain a failure in three cases: when he has access to a quantum computer, when he mounts a multi-target attack or when he can only perform a limited number of oracle queries. Secondly, we examine the amount of information that an adversary can derive from failing ciphertexts. Finally, these techniques are combined in an overall analysis of the security of lattice based schemes under a decryption failure attack. We show that an attacker could significantly reduce the security of lattice based schemes that have a relatively high failure rate. However, for most of the NIST Post-Quantum Proposals, the number of required oracle queries is above practical limits. Furthermore, a new generic weak-key (multi-target) model on lattice-based schemes, which can be viewed as a variant of the previous framework, is proposed. This model further takes into consideration the weak-key phenomenon that a small fraction of keys can have much larger decoding error probability for ciphertexts with certain key-related properties. We apply this model and present an attack in detail on the NIST Post-Quantum Proposal – ss-ntru-pke – with complexity below the claimed security level.

2019

ASIACRYPT

CSI-FiSh: Efficient Isogeny Based Signatures Through Class Group Computations
Abstract

In this paper we report on a new record class group computation of an imaginary quadratic field having 154-digit discriminant, surpassing the previous record of 130 digits. This class group is central to the CSIDH-512 isogeny based cryptosystem, and knowing the class group structure and relation lattice implies efficient uniform sampling and a canonical representation of its elements. Both operations were impossible before and allow us to instantiate an isogeny based signature scheme first sketched by Stolbunov. We further optimize the scheme using multiple public keys and Merkle trees, following an idea by De Feo and Galbraith. We also show that including quadratic twists allows to cut the public key size in half for free. Optimizing for signature size, our implementation takes 390 ms to sign/verify and results in signatures of 263 bytes, at the expense of a large public key. This is 300 times faster and over 3 times smaller than an optimized version of SeaSign for the same parameter set. Optimizing for public key and signature size combined, results in a total size of 1468 bytes, which is smaller than any other post-quantum signature scheme at the 128-bit security level.

2017

CHES

Faster Homomorphic Function Evaluation Using Non-integral Base Encoding
Abstract

In this paper we present an encoding method for real numbers tailored for homomorphic function evaluation. The choice of the degree of the polynomial modulus used in all popular somewhat homomorphic encryption schemes is dominated by security considerations, while with the current encoding techniques the correctness requirement allows for much smaller values. We introduce a generic encoding method using expansions with respect to a non-integral base, which exploits this large degree at the benefit of reducing the growth of the coefficients when performing homomorphic operations. This allows one to choose a smaller plaintext coefficient modulus which results in a significant reduction of the running time. We illustrate our approach by applying this encoding in the setting of homomorphic electricity load forecasting for the smart grid which results in a speed-up by a factor 13 compared to previous work, where encoding was done using balanced ternary expansions.

#### Program Committees

- PKC 2023
- Crypto 2021
- PKC 2020
- Eurocrypt 2020
- Eurocrypt 2019
- Asiacrypt 2018
- Eurocrypt 2018
- Eurocrypt 2015
- Eurocrypt 2014
- Asiacrypt 2013
- Crypto 2013
- Eurocrypt 2011
- Eurocrypt 2010

#### Coauthors

- David W. Archer (1)
- Ward Beullens (1)
- Charlotte Bonte (1)
- Carl Bootland (1)
- Joppe W. Bos (1)
- Wouter Castryck (10)
- Donald Donglong Chen (1)
- Jan-Pieter D’Anvers (1)
- Thomas Decru (2)
- Jan Denef (1)
- Vassil S. Dimitrov (1)
- Georgios Dimou (1)
- Junfeng Fan (2)
- Robin Geelen (3)
- Benedikt Gierlichs (1)
- Robert Granger (2)
- Qian Guo (1)
- Florian Hess (1)
- Marc Houben (2)
- Brian Huffman (1)
- Ilia Iliashenko (4)
- Kimmo U. Järvinen (1)
- Thomas Johansson (1)
- Antoine Joux (1)
- Ju-Sung Kang (1)
- Thorsten Kleinjung (1)
- Reynald Lercier (1)
- Tynan McAuley (1)
- Nele Mentens (1)
- Sam van Buuren (1)
- Simon-Philipp Merz (1)
- Marzio Mula (1)
- Alexander Nilsson (1)
- Roger Oyono (1)
- Lorenz Panny (1)
- Hilder V. L. Pereira (1)
- Bart Preneel (1)
- Oscar Reparaz (1)
- Dragos Rotaru (1)
- Sujoy Sinha Roy (3)
- Ben Selfridge (1)
- Nigel P. Smart (3)
- Jana Sotáková (2)
- Titouan Tanguy (1)
- Nicolas Thériault (1)
- Michiel Van Beirendonck (1)
- Joos Vandewalle (1)
- Ingrid Verbauwhede (6)
- Daniel Wagner (1)
- Tim Wood (1)