International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


On Concurrent Multi-Party Quantum Computation

Vipul Goyal , NTT Research and Carnegie Mellon University
Xiao Liang , Rice University
Giulio Malavolta , Max Planck Institute for Security and Privacy
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-031-38554-4_5 (login may be required)
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Presentation: Slides
Conference: CRYPTO 2023
Abstract: Recently, significant progress has been made toward quantumly secure multi-party computation (MPC) in the stand-alone setting. In sharp contrast, the picture of concurrently secure MPC (or even 2PC), for both classical and quantum functionalities, still remains unclear. Quantum information behaves in a fundamentally different way, making the job of adversary harder and easier at the same time. Thus, it is unclear if the positive or negative results from the classical setting still apply. This work initiates a systematic study of concurrent secure computation in the quantum setting. We obtain a mix of positive and negative results. We first show that assuming the existence of post-quantum one-way functions (PQ-OWFs), concurrently secure 2PC (and thus MPC) for quantum functionalities is impossible. Next, we focus on the bounded-concurrent setting, where we obtain simulation-sound zero-knowledge arguments for both NP and QMA, assuming PQ-OWFs. This is obtained by a new design of simulation-sound gadget, relying on the recent post-quantum non-malleable commitments by Liang, Pandey, and Yamakawa [arXiv:2207.05861], and the quantum rewinding strategy recently developed by Ananth, Chung, and La Placa [CRYPTO'21] for bounded-concurrent post-quantum ZK. Moreover, we show that our technique is general enough---It also leads to quantum-secure bounded-concurrent coin-flipping protocols, and eventually general-purpose 2PC and MPC, for both classical and quantum functionalities. All these constructions can be based on the quantum hardness of Learning with Errors.
  title={On Concurrent Multi-Party Quantum Computation},
  author={Vipul Goyal and Xiao Liang and Giulio Malavolta},