International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

CryptoDB

Vipul Goyal

Publications

Year
Venue
Title
2022
TCC
Steganography-Free Zero-Knowledge
We revisit the well-studied problem of preventing steganographic communication in multi-party communications. While this is known to be a provably impossible task, we propose a new model that allows circumventing this impossibility. In our model, the parties first publish a single message during an honest \emph{non-interactive} pre-processing phase and then later interact in an execution phase. We show that in this model, it is indeed possible to prevent any steganographic communication in zero-knowledge protocols. Our solutions rely on standard cryptographic assumptions.
2022
PKC
Storing and Retrieving Secrets on a blockchain 📺
A secret sharing scheme enables one party to distribute shares of a secret to n parties and ensures that an adversary in control of t out of n parties will learn no information about the secret. However, traditional secret sharing schemes are often insufficient, especially for applications in which the set of parties who hold the secret shares might change over time. To achieve security in this setting, dynamic proactive secret sharing (DPSS) is used. DPSS schemes proactively update the secret shares held by the parties and allow changes to the set of parties holding the secrets. We propose FaB-DPSS (FAst Batched DPSS) -- a new and highly optimized batched DPSS scheme. While previous work on batched DPSS focuses on a single client submitting a batch of secrets and does not allow storing and releasing secrets independently, we allow multiple different clients to dynamically share and release secrets. FaB-DPSS is the most efficient robust DPSS scheme that supports the highest possible adversarial threshold of 1/2. We prove FaB-DPSS secure and implement it. All operations complete in seconds, and we outperform a prior state-of-the-art DPSS scheme by over 6 times. Additionally, we propose new applications of DPSS in the context of blockchains. Specifically, we propose a protocol that uses blockchains and FaB-DPSS to provide conditional secret storage. The protocol allows parties to store secrets along with a release condition, and once a (possibly different) party satisfies this release condition, the secret is privately released to that party. This functionality is similar to extractable witness encryption. While there are numerous compelling applications (e.g., time-lock encryption, one-time programs, and fair multi-party computation) which rely on extractable witness encryption, there are no known efficient constructions (or even constructions based on any well-studied assumptions) of extractable witness encryption. However, by utilizing blockchains and FaB-DPSS, we can easily build all those applications. We provide an implementation of our conditional secret storage protocol as well as several applications building on top of it.
2022
EUROCRYPT
Private Circuits with Quasilinear Randomness 📺
Vipul Goyal Yuval Ishai Yifan Song
A {\em $t$-private} circuit for a function $f$ is a randomized Boolean circuit $C$ that maps a randomized encoding of an input $x$ to an encoding of the output $f(x)$, such that probing $t$ wires anywhere in $C$ reveals nothing about $x$. Private circuits can be used to protect embedded devices against side-channel attacks. Motivated by the high cost of generating fresh randomness in such devices, several works have studied the question of minimizing the randomness complexity of private circuits. The best known upper bound, due to Coron et al. (Eurocrypt 2020), is $O(t^2\cdot\log s)$ random bits, where $s$ is the circuit size of $f$. We improve this to $O(t\cdot \log s)$, including the randomness used by the input encoder, and extend this bound to the stateful variant of private circuits. Our constructions are semi-explicit in the sense that there is an efficient randomized algorithm that generates the private circuit $C$ from a circuit for $f$ with negligible failure probability.
2022
EUROCRYPT
Round-Optimal Byzantine Agreement 📺
Byzantine agreement is a fundamental primitive in cryptography and distributed computing, and minimizing its round complexity is of paramount importance. It is long known that any randomized $r$-round protocol must fail with probability at least $(c\cdot r)^{-r}$, for some constant $c$, when the number of corruptions is linear in the number of parties, $t = \theta(n)$. On the other hand, current protocols fail with probability at least $2^{-r}$. Whether we can match the lower bound agreement probability remains unknown. In this work, we resolve this long-standing open question. We present a protocol that matches the lower bound up to constant factors. Our results hold under a (strongly rushing) adaptive adversary that can corrupt up to $t = (1-\epsilon)n/2$ parties, and our protocols use a public-key infrastructure and a trusted setup for unique threshold signatures. This is the first protocol that decreases the failure probability (overall) by a \emph{super-constant} factor per round.
2022
CRYPTO
Tight Bounds on the Randomness Complexity of Secure Multiparty Computation 📺
Vipul Goyal Yuval Ishai Yifan Song
We revisit the question of minimizing the randomness complexity of protocols for secure multiparty computation (MPC) in the setting of perfect information-theoretic security. Kushilevitz and Mansour (SIAM J. Discret. Math., 1997) studied the case of n-party semi-honest MPC for the XOR function with security threshold t<n, showing that O(t^2 * log(n/t)) random bits are sufficient and \Omega(t) random bits are necessary. Their positive result was obtained via a non-explicit protocol, whose existence was proved using the probabilistic method. We essentially close the question by proving an \Omega(t^2) lower bound on the randomness complexity of XOR, matching the previous upper bound up to a logarithmic factor (or constant factor when t=\Omega(n)). We also obtain an explicit protocol that uses O(t^2 * \log^2n) random bits, matching our lower bound up to a polylogarithmic factor. We extend these results from XOR to general symmetric Boolean functions and to addition over a finite Abelian group, showing how to amortize the randomness complexity over multiple additions. Finally, combining our techniques with recent randomness-efficient constructions of private circuits, we obtain an explicit protocol for evaluating a general circuit C using only O(t^2 * \log |C|) random bits, by employing additional ``helper parties'' who do not contribute any inputs. This upper bound too matches our lower bound up to a logarithmic factor.
2022
CRYPTO
Sharing Transformation and Dishonest Majority MPC with Packed Secret Sharing 📺
In the last few years, the efficiency of secure multi-party computation (MPC) in the dishonest majority setting has increased by several orders of magnitudes starting with the SPDZ protocol family which offers a speedy information-theoretic online phase in the prepossessing model. However, state-of-the-art n-party MPC protocols in the dishonest majority setting incur online communication complexity per multiplication gate which is linear in the number of parties, i.e. O(n), per gate across all parties. In this work, we construct the first MPC protocols in the preprocessing model for dishonest majority with sublinear communication complexity per gate in the number of parties n. To achieve our results, we extend the use of packed secret sharing to the dishonest majority setting. For a constant fraction of corrupted parties (i.e. if 99 percent of the parties are corrupt), we can achieve a communication complexity of O(1) field elements per multiplication gate across all parties. At the crux of our techniques lies a new technique called sharing transformation. The sharing transformation technique allows us to transform shares under one type of linear secret sharing scheme into another, and even perform arbitrary linear maps on the secrets of (packed) secret sharing schemes with optimal communication complexity. This technique can be of independent interest since transferring shares from one type of scheme into another (e.g., for degree reduction) is ubiquitous in MPC. Furthermore, we introduce what we call sparsely packed Shamir sharing which allows us to address the issue of network routing efficiently, and packed Beaver triples which is an extension of the widely used technique of Beaver triples for packed secret sharing (for dishonest majority).
2021
TCC
Blockchains Enable Non-Interactive MPC 📺
We propose to use blockchains to achieve MPC which does not require the participating parties to be online simultaneously or interact with each other. Parties who contribute inputs but do not wish to receive outputs can go offline after submitting a single message. In addition to our main result, we study combined communication- and state-complexity in MPC, as it has implications for the communication complexity of our main construction. Finally, we provide a variation of our main protocol which additionally provides guaranteed output delivery.
2021
EUROCRYPT
Multi-Source Non-Malleable Extractors and Applications 📺
We introduce a natural generalization of two-source non-malleable extractors (Cheragachi and Guruswami, TCC 2014) called as \textit{multi-source non-malleable extractors}. Multi-source non-malleable extractors are special independent source extractors which satisfy an additional non-malleability property. This property requires that the output of the extractor remains close to uniform even conditioned on its output generated by tampering {\it several sources together}. We formally define this primitive, give a construction that is secure against a wide class of tampering functions, and provide applications. More specifically, we obtain the following results: \begin{itemize} \item For any $s \geq 2$, we give an explicit construction of a $s$-source non-malleable extractor for min-entropy $\Omega(n)$ and error $2^{-n^{\Omega(1)}}$ in the {\it overlapping joint tampering model}. This means that each tampered source could depend on any strict subset of all the sources and the sets corresponding to each tampered source could be overlapping in a way that we define. Prior to our work, there were no known explicit constructions that were secure even against disjoint tampering (where the sets are required to be disjoint without any overlap). \item We adapt the techniques used in the above construction to give a $t$-out-of-$n$ non-malleable secret sharing scheme (Goyal and Kumar, STOC 2018) for any $t \leq n$ in the \emph{disjoint tampering model}. This is the first general construction of a threshold non-malleable secret sharing (NMSS) scheme in the disjoint tampering model. All prior constructions had a restriction that the size of the tampered subsets could not be equal. \item We further adapt the techniques used in the above construction to give a $t$-out-of-$n$ non-malleable secret sharing scheme (Goyal and Kumar, STOC 2018) for any $t \leq n$ in the \emph{overlapping joint tampering model}. This is the first construction of a threshold NMSS in the overlapping joint tampering model. \item We show that a stronger notion of $s$-source non-malleable extractor that is multi-tamperable against disjoint tampering functions gives a single round network extractor protocol (Kalai et al., FOCS 2008) with attractive features. Plugging in with a new construction of multi-tamperable, 2-source non-malleable extractors provided in our work, we get a network extractor protocol for min-entropy $\Omega(n)$ that tolerates an {\it optimum} number ($t = p-2$) of faulty processors and extracts random bits for {\it every} honest processor. The prior network extractor protocols could only tolerate $t = \Omega(p)$ faulty processors and failed to extract uniform random bits for a fraction of the honest processors. \end{itemize}
2021
EUROCRYPT
Threshold Garbled Circuits and Ad Hoc Secure Computation 📺
Garbled Circuits (GCs) represent fundamental and powerful tools in cryptography, and many variants of GCs have been considered since their introduction. An important property of the garbled circuits is that they can be evaluated securely if and only if exactly 1 key for each input wire is obtained: no less and no more. In this work we study the case when: 1) some of the wire-keys are missing, but we are still interested in computing the output of the garbled circuit and 2) the evaluator of the GC might have both keys for a constant number of wires. We start to study this question in terms of non-interactive multi-party computation (NIMPC) which is strongly connected with GCs. In this notion, there is a fixed number of parties (n) that can get correlated information from a trusted setup. Then these parties can send an encoding of their input to an evaluator, which can compute the output of the function. Similarly to the notion of ad hoc secure computation proposed by Beimel et al. [ITCS 2016], we consider the case when less than n parties participate in the online phase, and in addition we let these parties colluding with the evaluator. We refer to this notion as Threshold NIMPC. In addition, we show that when the number of parties participating in the online phase is a fixed threshold l <= n then it is possible to securely evaluate any l-input function. We build our result on top of a new secret-sharing scheme (which can be of independent interest) and on the results proposed by Benhamouda, Krawczyk and Rabin [Crypto 2017]. Our protocol can be used to compute any function in NC1 in the information-theoretic setting and any function in P assuming one-way functions. As a second (and main) contribution, we consider a slightly different notion of security in which the number of parties that can participate in the online phase is not specified, and can be any number c above the threshold l (in this case the evaluator cannot collude with the other parties). We solve an open question left open by Beimel, Ishai and Kushilevitz [Eurocrypt 2017] showing how to build a secure protocol for the case when c is constant, under the Learning with Errors assumption.
2021
EUROCRYPT
Post-Quantum Multi-Party Computation 📺
We initiate the study of multi-party computation for classical functionalities in the plain model, with security against malicious quantum adversaries. We observe that existing techniques readily give a polynomial-round protocol, but our main result is a construction of *constant-round* post-quantum multi-party computation. We assume mildly super-polynomial quantum hardness of learning with errors (LWE), and quantum polynomial hardness of an LWE-based circular security assumption. Along the way, we develop the following cryptographic primitives that may be of independent interest: 1.) A spooky encryption scheme for relations computable by quantum circuits, from the quantum hardness of (a circular variant of) the LWE problem. This immediately yields the first quantum multi-key fully-homomorphic encryption scheme with classical keys. 2.) A constant-round post-quantum non-malleable commitment scheme, from the mildly super-polynomial quantum hardness of LWE. To prove the security of our protocol, we develop a new straight-line non-black-box simulation technique against parallel sessions that does not clone the adversary's state. This technique may also be relevant to the classical setting.
2021
EUROCRYPT
Towards Accountability in CRS Generation 📺
It is well known that several cryptographic primitives cannot be achieved without a common reference string (CRS). Those include, for instance, non-interactive zero-knowledge for NP, or malicious secure computation in fewer than four rounds. The security of those primitives heavily rely upon on the assumption that the trusted authority, who generates the CRS, does not misuse the randomness used in the CRS generation. However, we argue that there is no such thing as an unconditionally trusted authority and every authority must be held accountable for any trust to be well-founded. Indeed, a malicious authority can, for instance, recover private inputs of honest parties given transcripts of the protocols executed with respect to the CRS it has generated. While eliminating trust in the trusted authority may not be entirely feasible, can we at least move towards achieving some notion of accountability? We propose a new notion in which, if the CRS authority releases the private inputs of protocol executions to others, we can then provide a publicly-verifiable proof that certifies that the authority misbehaved. We study the feasibility of this notion in the context of non-interactive zero knowledge and two-round secure two-party computation.
2021
CRYPTO
ATLAS: Efficient and Scalable MPC in the Honest Majority Setting 📺
In this work, we address communication, computation, and round efficiency of unconditionally secure multi-party computation for arithmetic circuits in the honest majority setting. We achieve both algorithmic and practical improvements: - The best known result in the semi-honest setting has been due to Damgard and Nielsen (CRYPTO 2007). Over the last decade, their construction has played an important role in the progress of efficient secure computation. However despite a number of follow-up works, any significant improvements to the basic semi-honest protocol have been hard to come by. We show 33% improvement in communication complexity of this protocol. We show how to generalize this result to the malicious setting, leading to the best known unconditional honest majority MPC with malicious security. - We focus on the round complexity of the Damgard and Nielsen protocol and improve it by a factor of 2. Our improvement relies on a novel observation relating to an interplay between Damgard and Nielsen multiplication and Beaver triple multiplication. An implementation of our constructions shows an execution run time improvement compared to the state of the art ranging from 30% to 50%.
2021
CRYPTO
Unconditional Communication-Efficient MPC via Hall's Marriage Theorem 📺
The best known n party unconditional multiparty computation protocols with an optimal corruption threshold communicates O(n) field elements per gate. This has been the case even in the semi-honest setting despite over a decade of research on communication complexity in this setting. Going to the slightly sub-optimal corruption setting, the work of Damgard, Ishai, and Kroigaard (EUROCRYPT 2010) provided the first protocol for a single circuit achieving communication complexity of O(log |C|) elements per gate. While a number of works have improved upon this result, obtaining a protocol with O(1) field elements per gate has been an open problem. In this work, we construct the first unconditional multi-party computation protocol evaluating a single arithmetic circuit with amortized communication complexity of O(1) elements per gate.
2021
CRYPTO
Traceable Secret Sharing and Applications 📺
Consider a scenario where Alice stores some secret data $s$ on $n$ servers using a $t$-out-of-$n$ secret sharing scheme. Trudy (the collector) is interested in the secret data of Alice and is willing to pay for it. Trudy publishes an advertisement on the internet which describes an elaborate cryptographic scheme to collect the shares from the $n$ servers. Each server who decides to submit its share is paid a hefty monetary reward and is guaranteed ``immunity" from being caught or prosecuted in a court for violating its service agreement with Alice. Bob is one of the servers and sees this advertisement. On examining the collection scheme closely, Bob concludes that there is no way for Alice to prove anything in a court that he submitted his share. Indeed, if Bob is rational, he might use the cryptographic scheme in the advertisement and submit his share since there are no penalties and no fear of being caught and prosecuted. Can we design a secret sharing scheme which Alice can use to avoid such a scenario? We introduce a new primitive called as \textit{Traceable Secret Sharing} to tackle this problem. In particular, a traceable secret sharing scheme guarantees that a cheating server always runs the risk of getting traced and prosecuted by providing a valid evidence (which can be examined in a court of law) implicating its dishonest behavior. We explore various definitional aspects and show how they are highly non-trivial to construct (even ignoring efficiency aspects). We then give an efficient construction of traceable secret sharing assuming the existence of a secure two-party computation protocol. We also show an application of this primitive in constructing traceable protocols for multi-server delegation of computation.
2021
TCC
Two-Round Maliciously Secure Computation with Super-Polynomial Simulation 📺
We propose the first maliciously secure multi-party computation (MPC) protocol for general functionalities in two rounds, without any trusted setup. Since polynomial-time simulation is impossible in two rounds, we achieve the relaxed notion of superpolynomial-time simulation security [Pass, EUROCRYPT 2003]. Prior to our work, no such maliciously secure protocols were known even in the two-party setting for functionalities where both parties receive outputs. Our protocol is based on the sub-exponential security of standard assumptions plus a special type of non-interactive non-malleable commitment. At the heart of our approach is a two-round multi-party conditional disclosure of secrets (MCDS) protocol in the plain model from bilinear maps, which is constructed from techniques introduced in [Benhamouda and Lin, TCC 2020].
2021
TCC
Oblivious Transfer from Trapdoor Permutations in Minimal Rounds 📺
Oblivious transfer (OT) is a foundational primitive within cryptography owing to its connection with secure computation. One of the oldest constructions of oblivious transfer was from certified trapdoor permutations (TDPs). However several decades later, we do not know if a similar construction can be obtained from TDPs in general. In this work, we study the problem of constructing round optimal oblivious transfer from trapdoor permutations. In particular, we obtain the following new results (in the plain model) relying on TDPs in a black-box manner: – Three-round oblivious transfer protocol that guarantees indistinguishability-security against malicious senders (and semi-honest receivers). – Four-round oblivious transfer protocol secure against malicious adversaries with black-box simulation-based security. By combining our second result with an already known compiler we obtain the first round-optimal 2-party computation protocol that relies in a black-box way on TDPs. A key technical tool underlying our results is a new primitive we call dual witness encryption (DWE) that may be of independent interest.
2020
TCC
Round Optimal Secure Multiparty Computation from Minimal Assumptions 📺
We construct a four round secure multiparty computation (MPC) protocol in the plain model that achieves security against any dishonest majority. The security of our protocol relies only on the existence of four round oblivious transfer. This culminates the long line of research on constructing round-efficient MPC from minimal assumptions (at least w.r.t. black-box simulation).
2020
EUROCRYPT
Statistical Zaps and New Oblivious Transfer Protocols 📺
We study the problem of achieving statistical privacy in interactive proof systems and oblivious transfer -- two of the most well studied two-party protocols -- when limited rounds of interaction are available. -- Statistical Zaps: We give the first construction of statistical Zaps, namely, two-round statistical witness-indistinguishable (WI) protocols with a public-coin verifier. Our construction achieves computational soundness based on the quasi-polynomial hardness of learning with errors assumption. -- Three-Round Statistical Receiver-Private Oblivious Transfer: We give the first construction of a three-round oblivious transfer (OT) protocol -- in the plain model -- that achieves statistical privacy for receivers and computational privacy for senders against malicious adversaries, based on polynomial-time assumptions. The round-complexity of our protocol is optimal. We obtain our first result by devising a public-coin approach to compress sigma protocols, without relying on trusted setup. To obtain our second result, we devise a general framework via a new notion of statistical hash commitments that may be of independent interest.
2020
CRYPTO
Guaranteed Output Delivery Comes Free in Honest Majority MPC 📺
Vipul Goyal Yifan Song Chenzhi Zhu
We study the communication complexity of unconditionally secure MPC with guaranteed output delivery over point-to-point channels for corruption threshold t < n/2, assuming the existence of a public broadcast channel. We ask the question: “is it possible to construct MPC in this setting s.t. the communication complexity per multiplication gate is linear in the number of parties?” While a number of works have focused on reducing the communication complexity in this setting, the answer to the above question has remained elusive until now. We also focus on the concrete communication complexity of evaluating each multiplication gate. We resolve the above question in the affirmative by providing an MPC with communication complexity O(Cn\phi) bits (ignoring fixed terms which are independent of the circuit) where \phi is the length of an element in the field, C is the size of the (arithmetic) circuit, n is the number of parties. This is the first construction where the asymptotic communication complexity matches the best-known semi-honest protocol. This represents a strict improvement over the previously best-known communication complexity of O(C(n\phi + \kappa) + D_Mn^2\kappa) bits, where \kappa is the security parameter and D_M is the multiplicative depth of the circuit. Furthermore, the concrete communication complexity per multiplication gate is 5.5 field elements per party in the best case and 7.5 field elements in the worst case when one or more corrupted parties have been identified. This also roughly matches the best-known semi-honest protocol, which requires 5.5 field elements per gate. The above also yields the first secure-with-abort MPC protocol with the same cost per multiplication gate as the best-known semi-honest protocol. Our main result is obtained by compiling the secure-with-abort MPC protocol into a fully secure one.
2019
EUROCRYPT
Correlated-Source Extractors and Cryptography with Correlated-Random Tapes 📺
Vipul Goyal Yifan Song
In this paper, we consider the setting where a party uses correlated random tapes across multiple executions of a cryptographic algorithm. We ask if the security properties could still be preserved in such a setting. As examples, we introduce the notion of correlated-tape zero knowledge, and, correlated-tape multi-party computation, where, the zero-knowledge property, and, the ideal/real model security must still be preserved even if a party uses correlated random tapes in multiple executions.Our constructions are based on a new type of randomness extractor which we call correlated-source extractors. Correlated-source extractors can be seen as a dual of non-malleable extractors, and, allow an adversary to choose several tampering functions which are applied to the randomness source. Correlated-source extractors guarantee that even given the output of the extractor on the tampered sources, the output on the original source is still uniformly random. Given (seeded) correlated-source extractors, and, resettably-secure computation protocols, we show how to directly get a positive result for both correlated-tape zero-knowledge and correlated-tape multi-party computation in the CRS model. This is tight considering the known impossibility results on cryptography with imperfect randomness.Our main technical contribution is an explicit construction of a correlated-source extractor where the length of the seed is independent of the number of tamperings. Additionally, we also provide a (non-explicit) existential result for correlated source extractors with almost optimal parameters.
2019
EUROCRYPT
Founding Secure Computation on Blockchains 📺
We study the foundations of secure computation in the blockchain-hybrid model, where a blockchain – modeled as a global functionality – is available as an Oracle to all the participants of a cryptographic protocol. We demonstrate both destructive and constructive applications of blockchains:We show that classical rewinding-based simulation techniques used in many security proofs fail against blockchain-active adversaries that have read and post access to a global blockchain. In particular, we show that zero-knowledge (ZK) proofs with black-box simulation are impossible against blockchain-active adversaries.Nevertheless, we show that achieving security against blockchain-active adversaries is possible if the honest parties are also blockchain active. We construct an $$\omega (1)$$-round ZK protocol with black-box simulation. We show that this result is tight by proving the impossibility of constant-round ZK with black-box simulation.Finally, we demonstrate a novel application of blockchains to overcome the known impossibility results for concurrent secure computation in the plain model. We construct a concurrent self-composable secure computation protocol for general functionalities in the blockchain-hybrid model based on standard cryptographic assumptions. We develop a suite of techniques for constructing secure protocols in the blockchain-hybrid model that we hope will find applications to future research in this area.
2019
CRYPTO
Communication-Efficient Unconditional MPC with Guaranteed Output Delivery 📺
Vipul Goyal Yanyi Liu Yifan Song
We study the communication complexity of unconditionally secure MPC with guaranteed output delivery over point-to-point channels for corruption threshold $$t < n/3$$ . We ask the question: “is it possible to construct MPC in this setting s.t. the communication complexity per multiplication gate is linear in the number of parties?” While a number of works have focused on reducing the communication complexity in this setting, the answer to the above question has remained elusive for over a decade.We resolve the above question in the affirmative by providing an MPC with communication complexity $$O(Cn\kappa + n^3\kappa )$$ where $$\kappa $$ is the size of an element in the field, C is the size of the (arithmetic) circuit, and, n is the number of parties. This represents a strict improvement over the previously best known communication complexity of $$O(Cn\kappa +D_Mn^2\kappa +n^3\kappa )$$ where $$D_M$$ is the multiplicative depth of the circuit. To obtain this result, we introduce a novel technique called 4-consistent tuples of sharings which we believe to be of independent interest.
2019
CRYPTO
Simultaneous Amplification: The Case of Non-interactive Zero-Knowledge 📺
Vipul Goyal Aayush Jain Amit Sahai
In this work, we explore the question of simultaneous privacy and soundness amplification for non-interactive zero-knowledge argument systems (NIZK). We show that any $$\delta _s-$$sound and $$\delta _z-$$zero-knowledge NIZK candidate satisfying $$\delta _s+\delta _z=1-\epsilon $$, for any constant $$\epsilon >0$$, can be turned into a computationally sound and zero-knowledge candidate with the only extra assumption of a subexponentially secure public-key encryption.We develop novel techniques to leverage the use of leakage simulation lemma (Jetchev-Peitzrak TCC 2014) to argue amplification. A crucial component of our result is a new notion for secret sharing $$\mathsf {NP}$$ instances. We believe that this may be of independent interest.To achieve this result we analyze following two transformations:Parallel Repetition: We show that using parallel repetition any $$\delta _s-$$sound and $$\delta _z-$$zero-knowledge $$\mathsf {NIZK}$$ candidate can be turned into (roughly) $$\delta ^n_s-$$sound and $$1-(1-\delta _{z})^n-$$zero-knowledge candidate. Here n is the repetition parameter.MPC based Repetition: We propose a new transformation that amplifies zero-knowledge in the same way that parallel repetition amplifies soundness. We show that using this any $$\delta _s-$$sound and $$\delta _z-$$zero-knowledge $$\mathsf {NIZK}$$ candidate can be turned into (roughly) $$1-(1-\delta _s)^n-$$sound and $$2\cdot \delta ^n_{z}-$$zero-knowledge candidate. Then we show that using these transformations in a zig-zag fashion we can obtain our result. Finally, we also present a simple transformation which directly turns any $$\mathsf {NIZK}$$ candidate satisfying $$\delta _s,\delta _z<1/3 -1/\mathsf {poly}(\lambda )$$ to a secure one.
2019
TCC
Interactive Non-malleable Codes
Non-malleable codes (NMC) introduced by Dziembowski et al. [ICS’10] allow one to encode “passive” data in such a manner that when a codeword is tampered, the original data either remains completely intact or is essentially destroyed.In this work, we initiate the study of interactive non-malleable codes (INMCs) that allow for encoding “active communication” rather than passive data. An INMC allows two parties to engage in an interactive protocol such that an adversary who is able to tamper with the protocol messages either leaves the original transcript intact (i.e., the parties are able to reconstruct the original transcript) or the transcript is completely destroyed and replaced with an unrelated one.We formalize a tampering model for interactive protocols and put forward the notion of INMCs. Since constructing INMCs for general adversaries is impossible (as in the case of non-malleable codes), we construct INMCs for several specific classes of tampering functions. These include bounded state, split state, and fragmented sliding window tampering functions. We also obtain lower bounds for threshold tampering functions via a connection to interactive coding. All of our results are unconditional.
2018
EUROCRYPT
2018
CRYPTO
Promise Zero Knowledge and Its Applications to Round Optimal MPC 📺
We devise a new partitioned simulation technique for MPC where the simulator uses different strategies for simulating the view of aborting adversaries and non-aborting adversaries. The protagonist of this technique is a new notion of promise zero knowledge (ZK) where the ZK property only holds against non-aborting verifiers. We show how to realize promise ZK in three rounds in the simultaneous-message model assuming polynomially hard DDH (or QR or N$$^{th}$$-Residuosity).We demonstrate the following applications of our new technique:We construct the first round-optimal (i.e., four round) MPC protocol for general functions based on polynomially hard DDH (or QR or N$$^{th}$$-Residuosity).We further show how to overcome the four-round barrier for MPC by constructing a three-round protocol for “list coin-tossing” – a slight relaxation of coin-tossing that suffices for most conceivable applications – based on polynomially hard DDH (or QR or N$$^{th}$$-Residuosity). This result generalizes to randomized input-less functionalities. Previously, four round MPC protocols required sub-exponential-time hardness assumptions and no multi-party three-round protocols were known for any relaxed security notions with polynomial-time simulation against malicious adversaries.In order to base security on polynomial-time standard assumptions, we also rely upon a leveled rewinding security technique that can be viewed as a polynomial-time alternative to leveled complexity leveraging for achieving “non-malleability” across different primitives.
2018
CRYPTO
Non-malleable Secret Sharing for General Access Structures 📺
Vipul Goyal Ashutosh Kumar
Goyal and Kumar (STOC’18) recently introduced the notion of non-malleable secret sharing. Very roughly, the guarantee they seek is the following: the adversary may potentially tamper with all of the shares, and still, either the reconstruction procedure outputs the original secret, or, the original secret is “destroyed” and the reconstruction outputs a string which is completely “unrelated” to the original secret. Prior works on non-malleable codes in the 2 split-state model imply constructions which can be seen as 2-out-of-2 non-malleable secret sharing (NMSS) schemes. Goyal and Kumar proposed constructions of t-out-of-n NMSS schemes. These constructions have already been shown to have a number of applications in cryptography.We continue this line of research and construct NMSS for more general access structures. We give a generic compiler that converts any statistical (resp. computational) secret sharing scheme realizing any access structure into another statistical (resp. computational) secret sharing scheme that not only realizes the same access structure but also ensures statistical non-malleability against a computationally unbounded adversary who tampers each of the shares arbitrarily and independently. Instantiating with known schemes we get unconditional NMMS schemes that realize any access structures generated by polynomial size monotone span programs. Similarly, we also obtain conditional NMMS schemes realizing access structure in $$\mathbf {monotone \;P}$$ monotoneP (resp. $$\mathbf {monotone \;NP}$$ monotoneNP) assuming one-way functions (resp. witness encryption).Towards considering more general tampering models, we also propose a construction of n-out-of-n NMSS. Our construction is secure even if the adversary could divide the shares into any two (possibly overlapping) subsets and then arbitrarily tamper the shares in each subset. Our construction is based on a property of inner product and an observation that the inner-product based construction of Aggarwal, Dodis and Lovett (STOC’14) is in fact secure against a tampering class that is stronger than 2 split-states. We also show applications of our construction to the problem of non-malleable message transmission.
2017
TCC
2017
TCC
2017
PKC
2016
ASIACRYPT
2016
ASIACRYPT
2015
TCC
2015
TCC
2015
CRYPTO
2015
CRYPTO
2014
CRYPTO
2014
EUROCRYPT
2014
PKC
2014
TCC
2013
TCC
2013
TCC
2013
CRYPTO
2013
CRYPTO
2013
ASIACRYPT
2013
EUROCRYPT
2012
TCC
2012
EUROCRYPT
2012
CRYPTO
2011
TCC
2011
TCC
2011
CRYPTO
2011
ASIACRYPT
2011
ASIACRYPT
2010
TCC
2010
CRYPTO
2010
CRYPTO
2009
EUROCRYPT
2009
CRYPTO
2008
TCC
2008
EUROCRYPT
2008
EUROCRYPT
2007
ASIACRYPT
2007
CRYPTO

Program Committees

Eurocrypt 2020
TCC 2020
Crypto 2017
Asiacrypt 2016
Eurocrypt 2016
Crypto 2014
Eurocrypt 2013
Asiacrypt 2013
TCC 2013
Asiacrypt 2012
TCC 2011
Crypto 2011

Coauthors

Behzad Abdolmaleki (1)
Amit Agarwal (2)
Shweta Agrawal (1)
Shashank Agrawal (1)
Prabhanjan Ananth (5)
Gilad Asharov (1)
Saikrishna Badrinarayanan (3)
James Bartusek (2)
Raghav Bhaskar (2)
Abhishek Bhowmick (1)
Harry Buhrman (1)
Ran Canetti (1)
Nishanth Chandran (4)
Arka Rai Choudhuri (3)
Michele Ciampi (3)
Hila Dahari (1)
Yi Deng (1)
Serge Fehr (1)
Dengguo Feng (1)
Nils Fleischhacker (3)
Sanjam Garg (2)
Ran Gelles (1)
George Ghinea (1)
Shafi Goldwasser (1)
S. Dov Gordon (1)
Rishab Goyal (1)
Divya Gupta (2)
Yuval Ishai (4)
Abhishek Jain (20)
Aayush Jain (3)
Zhengzhong Jin (1)
Yael Tauman Kalai (1)
Bhavana Kanukurthi (1)
Jonathan Katz (2)
Dakshita Khurana (4)
Venkata Koppula (1)
Abhiram Kothapalli (1)
Virendra Kumar (1)
Ashutosh Kumar (1)
Srivatsan Laxman (1)
Hanjun Li (1)
Dongdai Lin (1)
Huijia Lin (1)
Feng-Hao Liu (1)
Yanyi Liu (1)
Chen-Da Liu-Zhang (1)
Satyanarayana V. Lokam (1)
Mohammad Mahmoody (2)
Giulio Malavolta (4)
Elisaweta Masserova (2)
Ilya Mironov (1)
Payman Mohassel (1)
Ryan Moriarty (2)
Adam O'Neill (2)
Rafail Ostrovsky (11)
Omkant Pandey (3)
Bryan Parno (2)
Anat Paskin-Cherniavsky (1)
Rafael Pass (1)
Antigoni Polychroniadou (3)
Manoj Prabhakaran (2)
Slava Radune (1)
Vanishree Rao (2)
Silas Richelson (2)
Alon Rosen (1)
Amit Sahai (18)
Christian Schaffner (1)
Elaine Shi (1)
Adam Smith (1)
Yifan Song (11)
Akshayaram Srinivasan (2)
Abhradeep Thakurta (1)
Ramarathnam Venkatesan (1)
Ivan Visconti (2)
Akshay Wadia (1)
Moti Yung (1)
Hong-Sheng Zhou (1)
Chenzhi Zhu (2)