International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Jingqiang Lin


ConvKyber: Unleashing the Power of AI Accelerators for Faster Kyber with Novel Iteration-based Approaches
The remarkable performance capabilities of AI accelerators offer promising opportunities for accelerating cryptographic algorithms, particularly in the context of lattice-based cryptography. However, current approaches to leveraging AI accelerators often remain at a rudimentary level of implementation, overlooking the intricate internal mechanisms of these devices. Consequently, a significant number of computational resources is underutilized.In this paper, we present a comprehensive exploration of NVIDIA Tensor Cores and introduce a novel framework tailored specifically for Kyber. Firstly, we propose two innovative approaches that efficiently break down Kyber’s NTT into iterative matrix multiplications, resulting in approximately a 75% reduction in costs compared to the state-of-the-art scanning-based methods. Secondly, by reversing the internal mechanisms, we precisely manipulate the internal resources of Tensor Cores using assembly-level code instead of inefficient standard interfaces, eliminating memory accesses and redundant function calls. Finally, building upon our highly optimized NTT, we provide a complete implementation for all parameter sets of Kyber. Our implementation surpasses the state-of-the-art Tensor Core based work, achieving remarkable speed-ups of 1.93x, 1.65x, 1.22x and 3.55x for polyvec_ntt, KeyGen, Enc and Dec in Kyber-1024, respectively. Even when considering execution latency, our throughput-oriented full Kyber implementation maintains an acceptable execution latency. For instance, the execution latency ranges from 1.02 to 5.68 milliseconds for Kyber-1024 on R3080 when achieving the peak throughput.
Analysis and Improvement of Entropy Estimators in NIST SP 800-90B for Non-IID Entropy Sources
Random number generators (RNGs) are essential for cryptographic applications. In most practical applications, the randomness of RNGs is provided by entropy sources. If the randomness is less than the expected, the security of cryptographic applications could be undermined. Accurate entropy estimation is a critical method for the evaluation of RNG security, and significant overestimation and underestimation are both inadvisable. The NIST Special Publication 800-90B is one of the most common certifications for entropy estimation. It makes no assumption of the entropy source and provides min-entropy estimation results by a set of entropy estimators. It estimates the entropy sources in two tracks: the IID (independent and identically distributed) track and non-IID track. In practice, non-IID entropy sources are more common, as physical phenomenon, sampling process or external perturbation could cause the dependency of the outputs. In this paper, we prove that the Collision Estimate and the Compression Estimate in non-IID track could provide significant underestimates in theory. In order to accurately estimate the min-entropy of non-IID sources, we provide a formula of minentropybased on conditional probability, and propose a new estimator to approximate the result of this formula. Finally, we perform experiments to compare our estimator with the NIST estimators using simulated non-IID data. Results show that our estimator gives close estimates to the real min-entropy.