International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

CryptoDB

Jakub Szefer

Publications

Year
Venue
Title
2021
CRYPTO
The Cost to Break SIKE: A Comparative Hardware-Based Analysis with AES and SHA-3 📺
Patrick Longa Wen Wang Jakub Szefer
This work presents a detailed study of the classical security of the post-quantum supersingular isogeny key encapsulation (SIKE) protocol using a realistic budget-based cost model that considers the actual computing and memory costs that are needed for cryptanalysis. In this effort, we design especially-tailored hardware accelerators for the time-critical multiplication and isogeny computations that we use to model an ASIC-powered instance of the van Oorschot-Wiener (vOW) parallel collision search algorithm. We then extend the analysis to AES and SHA-3 in the context of the NIST post-quantum cryptography standardization process to carry out a parameter analysis based on our cost model. This analysis, together with the state-of-the-art quantum security analysis of SIKE, indicates that the current SIKE parameters offer higher practical security than currently believed, closing an open issue on the suitability of the parameters to match NIST's security levels. In addition, we explore the possibility of using significantly smaller primes to enable more efficient and compact implementations with reduced bandwidth. Our improved cost model and analysis can be applied to other cryptographic settings and primitives, and can have implications for other post-quantum candidates in the NIST process.
2020
TCHES
Parameterized Hardware Accelerators for Lattice-Based Cryptography and Their Application to the HW/SW Co-Design of qTESLA 📺
This paper presents a set of efficient and parameterized hardware accelerators that target post-quantum lattice-based cryptographic schemes, including a versatile cSHAKE core, a binary-search CDT-based Gaussian sampler, and a pipelined NTT-based polynomial multiplier, among others. Unlike much of prior work, the accelerators are fully open-sourced, are designed to be constant-time, and can be parameterized at compile-time to support different parameters without the need for re-writing the hardware implementation. These flexible, publicly-available accelerators are leveraged to demonstrate the first hardware-software co-design using RISC-V of the post-quantum lattice-based signature scheme qTESLA with provably secure parameters. In particular, this work demonstrates that the NIST’s Round 2 level 1 and level 3 qTESLA variants achieve over a 40-100x speedup for key generation, about a 10x speedup for signing, and about a 16x speedup for verification, compared to the baseline RISC-V software-only implementation. For instance, this corresponds to execution in 7.7, 34.4, and 7.8 milliseconds for key generation, signing, and verification, respectively, for qTESLA’s level 1 parameter set on an Artix-7 FPGA, demonstrating the feasibility of the scheme for embedded applications.
2017
CHES
FPGA-based Key Generator for the Niederreiter Cryptosystem Using Binary Goppa Codes
This paper presents a post-quantum secure, efficient, and tunable FPGA implementation of the key-generation algorithm for the Niederreiter cryptosystem using binary Goppa codes. Our key-generator implementation requires as few as 896,052 cycles to produce both public and private portions of a key, and can achieve an estimated frequency Fmax of over 240 MHz when synthesized for Stratix V FPGAs. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first hardware-based implementation that works with parameters equivalent to, or exceeding, the recommended 128-bit “post-quantum security” level. The key generator can produce a key pair for parameters $$m=13$$, $$t=119$$, and $$n=6960$$ in only 3.7 ms when no systemization failure occurs, and in $$3.5 \cdot 3.7$$ ms on average. To achieve such performance, we implemented an optimized and parameterized Gaussian systemizer for matrix systemization, which works for any large-sized matrix over any binary field $$\text {GF}(2^m)$$. Our work also presents an FPGA-based implementation of the Gao-Mateer additive FFT, which only takes about 1000 clock cycles to finish the evaluation of a degree-119 polynomial at $$2^{13}$$ data points. The Verilog HDL code of our key generator is parameterized and partly code-generated using Python and Sage. It can be synthesized for different parameters, not just the ones shown in this paper. We tested the design using a Sage reference implementation, iVerilog simulation, and on real FPGA hardware.
2016
CHES