Mohammad T. Manzuri Shalmani
Physical Cryptanalysis of KeeLoq Code Hopping Applications
KeeLoq remote keyless entry systems are widely used for access control purposes such as garage door openers for car anti-theft systems. We present the first successful differential power analysis attacks on numerous commercially available products employing KeeLoq code hopping. Our new techniques combine side-channel cryptanalysis with specific properties of the KeeLoq algorithm. They allow for efficiently revealing both the secret key of a remote transmitter and the manufacturer key stored in a receiver. As a result, a remote control can be cloned from only ten power traces, allowing for a practical key recovery in few minutes. Once knowing the manufacturer key, we demonstrate how to disclose the secret key of a remote control and replicate it from a distance, just by eavesdropping at most two messages. This key-cloning without physical access to the device has serious real-world security implications. Finally, we mount a denial-of-service attack on a KeeLoq access control system. All the proposed attacks have been verified on several commercial KeeLoq products.
Information Leakage of Flip-Flops in DPA-Resistant Logic Styles
This contribution discusses the information leakage of flip-flops for different DPA-resistant logic styles. We show that many of the proposed side-channel resistant logic styles still employ flip-flops that leak data-dependent information. Furthermore, we apply simple models for the leakage of masked flip-flops to design a new attack on circuits implemented using masked logic styles. Contrary to previous attacks on masked logic styles, our attack does not predict the mask bit and does not need detailed knowledge about the attacked device, e.g., the circuit layout. Moreover, our attack works even if all the load capacitances of the complementary logic signals are perfectly balanced and even if the PRNG is ideally unbiased. Finally, after performing the attack on DRSL, MDPL, and iMDPL circuits we show that single-bit masks do not influence the exploitability of the revealed leakage of the masked flip-flops.
Investigating the DPA-Resistance Property of Charge Recovery Logics
The threat of DPA attacks is of crucial importance when designing cryptographic hardware. As a result, several DPA countermeasures at the cell level have been proposed in the last years, but none of them offers perfect protection against DPA attacks. Moreover, all of these DPA-resistant logic styles increase the power consumption and the area consumption significantly. On the other hand, there are some logic styles which provide less power dissipation (so called charge recovery logic) that can be considered as a DPA countermeasure. In this article we examine them from the DPA-resistance point of view. As an example of charge recovery logic styles, 2N-2N2P is evaluated. It is shown that the usage of this logic style leads to an improvement of the DPA-resistance and at the same time reduces the energy consumption which make it especially suitable for pervasive devices. In fact, it is the first time that a proposed DPA-resistant logic style consumes less power than the corresponding standard CMOS circuit.