International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Satyanarayana Vusirikala


Verifiable Registration-Based Encryption 📺
Rishab Goyal Satyanarayana Vusirikala
In recent work, Garg, Hajiabadi, Mahmoody, and Rahimi (TCC 2018) introduced a new encryption framework, which they referred to as Registration-Based Encryption (RBE). The central motivation behind RBE was to provide a novel methodology for solving the well-known key-escrow problem in Identity-Based Encryption (IBE) systems. Informally, in an RBE system, there is no private-key generator unlike IBE systems, but instead, it is replaced with a public key accumulator. Every user in an RBE system samples its own public-secret key pair and sends the public key to the accumulator for registration. The key accumulator has no secret state and is only responsible for compressing all the registered user identity-key pairs into a short public commitment. Here the encryptor only requires the compressed parameters along with the target identity, whereas a decryptor requires supplementary key material along with the secret key associated with the registered public key. The initial construction by Garg et al. based on standard assumptions only provided weak efficiency properties. In a follow-up work by Garg, Hajiabadi, Mahmoody, Rahimi, and Sekar (PKC 2019), they gave an efficient RBE construction from standard assumptions. However, both these works considered the key accumulator to be honest which might be too strong an assumption in real-world scenarios. In this work, we initiate a formal study of RBE systems with malicious key accumulators. To that end, we introduce a strengthening of the RBE framework which we call Verifiable RBE (VRBE). A VRBE system additionally gives the users an extra capability to obtain short proofs from the key accumulator proving correct (and unique) registration for every registered user as well as proving non-registration for any yet unregistered identity. We construct VRBE systems that provide succinct proofs of registration and non-registration from standard assumptions (such as CDH, Factoring, LWE). Our proof systems also naturally allow a much more efficient audit process which can be performed by any non-participating third party as well. A by-product of our approach is that we provide a more efficient RBE construction than that provided in the prior work of Garg \etal\cite{GHMRS19}. And, lastly, we initiate a study on the extension of VRBE to a wider range of access and trust structures.
New Constructions of Hinting PRGs, OWFs with Encryption, and more 📺
Rishab Goyal Satyanarayana Vusirikala Brent Waters
Over the last few years, there has been a surge of new cryptographic results, including laconic oblivious transfer, (anonymous/ hierarchical) identity-based encryption, trapdoor functions, chosen-ciphertext security transformations, designated-verifier zero-knowledge proofs, due to a beautiful framework recently introduced in the works of Cho et al. (Crypto 2017), and Dottling and Garg (Crypto 2017). The primitive of one-way function with encryption (OWFE) and its relatives (chameleon encryption, one-time signatures with encryption, hinting PRGs, trapdoor hash encryption, batch encryption) has been a centerpiece in all these results. While there exist multiple realizations of OWFE (and its relatives) from a variety of assumptions such as CDH, Factoring, and LWE, all such constructions fall under the same general ``missing block" framework. Although this framework has been instrumental in opening up a new pathway towards various cryptographic functionalities via the abstraction of OWFE (and its relatives), it has been accompanied by undesirable inefficiencies that might inhibit a much wider adoption in many practical scenarios. Motivated by the surging importance of the OWFE abstraction (and its relatives), a natural question to ask is whether the existing approaches can be diversified to not only obtain more constructions from different assumptions, but also in developing newer frameworks. We believe answering this question will eventually lead to important and previously unexplored performance trade-offs in the overarching applications of this novel cryptographic paradigm. In this work, we propose a new accumulation-style framework for building a new class of OWFE as well as hinting PRG constructions with a special focus on achieving shorter ciphertext size and shorter public parameter size (respectively). Such performance improvements parlay into shorter parameters in their corresponding applications. Briefly, we explore the following performance trade-offs --- (1) for OWFE, our constructions outperform in terms of ciphertext size as well as encryption time, but this comes at the cost of larger evaluation and setup times, (2) for hinting PRGs, our constructions provide a rather dramatic trade-off between evaluation time versus parameter size, with our construction leading to significantly shorter public parameter size. The trade-off enabled by our hinting PRG construction also leads to interesting implications in the CPA-to-CCA transformation provided in. We also provide concrete performance measurements for our constructions and compare them with existing approaches. We believe highlighting such trade-offs will lead to wider adoption of these abstractions in a practical sense.
On Perfect Correctness in (Lockable) Obfuscation
Rishab Goyal Venkata Koppula Satyanarayana Vusirikala Brent Waters
In a lockable obfuscation scheme a party takes as input a program P, a lock value alpha, a message msg, and produces an obfuscated program P'. The obfuscated program can be evaluated on an input x to learn the message msg if P(x)= alpha. The security of such schemes states that if alpha is randomly chosen (independent of P and msg), then one cannot distinguish an obfuscation of $P$ from a dummy obfuscation. Existing constructions of lockable obfuscation achieve provable security under the Learning with Errors assumption. One limitation of these constructions is that they achieve only statistical correctness and allow for a possible one-sided error where the obfuscated program could output the msg on some value x where P(x) \neq alpha. In this work we motivate the problem of studying perfect correctness in lockable obfuscation for the case where the party performing the obfuscation might wish to inject a backdoor or hole in the correctness. We begin by studying the existing constructions and identify two components that are susceptible to imperfect correctness. The first is in the LWE-based pseudo-random generators (PRGs) that are non-injective, while the second is in the last level testing procedure of the core constructions. We address each in turn. First, we build upon previous work to design injective PRGs that are provably secure from the LWE assumption. Next, we design an alternative last level testing procedure that has an additional structure to prevent correctness errors. We then provide surgical proof of security (to avoid redundancy) that connects our construction to the construction by Goyal, Koppula, and Waters (GKW). Specifically, we show how for a random value alpha an obfuscation under our new construction is indistinguishable from an obfuscation under the existing GKW construction.
Collusion Resistant Broadcast and Trace from Positional Witness Encryption
Rishab Goyal Satyanarayana Vusirikala Brent Waters
An emerging trend is for researchers to identify cryptography primitives for which feasibility was first established under obfuscation and then move the realization to a different setting. In this work we explore a new such avenue—to move obfuscation-based cryptography to the assumption of (positional) witness encryption. Our goal is to develop techniques and tools, which we will dub “witness encryption friendly” primitives and use these to develop a methodology for building advanced cryptography from positional witness encryption.We take a bottom up approach and pursue our general agenda by attacking the specific problem of building collusion-resistant broadcast systems with tracing from positional witness encryption. We achieve a system where the size of ciphertexts, public key and private key are polynomial in the security parameter $$\lambda $$ and independent of the number of users N in the broadcast system. Currently, systems with such parameters are only known from indistinguishability obfuscation.


Rishab Goyal (4)
Venkata Koppula (1)
Brent Waters (3)