International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

CryptoDB

Brent Waters

Affiliation: UT Austin

Publications

Year
Venue
Title
2019
CRYPTO
ABE for DFA from k-Lin
Junqing Gong Brent Waters Hoeteck Wee
We present the first attribute-based encryption (ABE) scheme for deterministic finite automaton (DFA) based on static assumptions in bilinear groups; this resolves an open problem posed by Waters (CRYPTO 2012). Our main construction achieves selective security against unbounded collusions under the standard k-linear assumption in prime-order bilinear groups, whereas previous constructions all rely on q-type assumptions.
2019
PKC
Collusion Resistant Broadcast and Trace from Positional Witness Encryption
An emerging trend is for researchers to identify cryptography primitives for which feasibility was first established under obfuscation and then move the realization to a different setting. In this work we explore a new such avenue—to move obfuscation-based cryptography to the assumption of (positional) witness encryption. Our goal is to develop techniques and tools, which we will dub “witness encryption friendly” primitives and use these to develop a methodology for building advanced cryptography from positional witness encryption.We take a bottom up approach and pursue our general agenda by attacking the specific problem of building collusion-resistant broadcast systems with tracing from positional witness encryption. We achieve a system where the size of ciphertexts, public key and private key are polynomial in the security parameter $$\lambda $$ and independent of the number of users N in the broadcast system. Currently, systems with such parameters are only known from indistinguishability obfuscation.
2019
CRYPTO
Realizing Chosen Ciphertext Security Generically in Attribute-Based Encryption and Predicate Encryption
Venkata Koppula Brent Waters
We provide generic and black box transformations from any chosen plaintext secure Attribute-Based Encryption (ABE) or One-sided Predicate Encryption system into a chosen ciphertext secure system. Our transformation requires only the IND-CPA security of the original ABE scheme coupled with a pseudorandom generator (PRG) with a special security property.In particular, we consider a PRG with an n bit input $$s \in \{0,1\}^n$$ and $$n \cdot \ell $$ bit output $$y_1, \ldots , y_n$$ where each $$y_i$$ is an $$\ell $$ bit string. Then for a randomly chosen s the following two distributions should be computationally indistinguishable. In the first distribution $$r_{s_i, i} = y_i$$ and $$r_{\bar{s}_i, i}$$ is chosen randomly for $$i \in [n]$$. In the second distribution all $$r_{b, i}$$ are chosen randomly for $$i \in [n], b \in \{0,1\}$$.We show that such PRGs can be built from either the computational Diffie-Hellman assumption (in non-bilinear groups) or the Learning with Errors (LWE) assumption (and potentially other assumptions). Thus, one can transform any IND-CPA secure system into a chosen ciphertext secure one by adding either assumption. (Or by simply assuming an existing PRG is hinting secure.) In addition, our work provides a new approach and perspective for obtaining chosen ciphertext security in the basic case of public key encryption.
2019
CRYPTO
Watermarking Public-Key Cryptographic Primitives
A software watermarking scheme enables users to embed a message or mark within a program while preserving its functionality. Moreover, it is difficult for an adversary to remove a watermark from a marked program without corrupting its behavior. Existing constructions of software watermarking from standard assumptions have focused exclusively on watermarking pseudorandom functions (PRFs).In this work, we study watermarking public-key primitives such as the signing key of a digital signature scheme or the decryption key of a public-key (predicate) encryption scheme. While watermarking public-key primitives might intuitively seem more challenging than watermarking PRFs, our constructions only rely on simple assumptions. Our watermarkable signature scheme can be built from the minimal assumption of one-way functions while our watermarkable public-key encryption scheme can be built from most standard algebraic assumptions that imply public-key encryption (e.g., factoring, discrete log, or lattice assumptions). Our schemes also satisfy a number of appealing properties: public marking, public mark-extraction, and collusion resistance. Our schemes are the first to simultaneously achieve all of these properties.The key enabler of our new constructions is a relaxed notion of functionality-preserving. While traditionally, we require that a marked program (approximately) preserve the input/output behavior of the original program, in the public-key setting, preserving the “functionality” does not necessarily require preserving the exact input/output behavior. For instance, if we want to mark a signing algorithm, it suffices that the marked algorithm still output valid signatures (even if those signatures might be different from the ones output by the unmarked algorithm). Similarly, if we want to mark a decryption algorithm, it suffices that the marked algorithm correctly decrypt all valid ciphertexts (but may behave differently from the unmarked algorithm on invalid or malformed ciphertexts). Our relaxed notion of functionality-preserving captures the essence of watermarking and still supports the traditional applications, but provides additional flexibility to enable new and simple realizations of this powerful cryptographic notion.
2019
CRYPTO
Broadcast and Trace with $N^{\varepsilon }$ Ciphertext Size from Standard Assumptions
We construct a broadcast and trace scheme (also known as trace and revoke or broadcast, trace and revoke) with N users, where the ciphertext size can be made as low as $$O(N^\varepsilon )$$ , for any arbitrarily small constant $$\varepsilon >0$$ . This improves on the prior best construction of broadcast and trace under standard assumptions by Boneh and Waters (CCS ‘06), which had ciphertext size $$O(N^{1/2})$$ . While that construction relied on bilinear maps, ours uses a combination of the learning with errors (LWE) assumption and bilinear maps.Recall that, in both broadcast encryption and traitor-tracing schemes, there is a collection of N users, each of which gets a different secret key $${\mathsf {sk}}_i$$ . In broadcast encryption, it is possible to create ciphertexts targeted to a subset $$S \subseteq [N]$$ of the users such that only those users can decrypt it correctly. In a traitor tracing scheme, if a subset of users gets together and creates a decoder box D that is capable of decrypting ciphertexts, then it is possible to trace at least one of the users responsible for creating D. A broadcast and trace scheme intertwines the two properties, in a way that results in more than just their union. In particular, it ensures that if a decoder D is able to decrypt ciphertexts targeted toward a set S of users, then it should be possible to trace one of the users in the set S responsible for creating D, even if other users outside of S also participated. As of recently, we have essentially optimal broadcast encryption (Boneh, Gentry, Waters CRYPTO ’05) under bilinear maps and traitor tracing (Goyal, Koppula, Waters STOC ’18) under LWE, where the ciphertext size is at most poly-logarithmic in N. The main contribution of our paper is to carefully combine LWE and bilinear-map based components, and get them to interact with each other, to achieve broadcast and trace.
2018
EUROCRYPT
2018
CRYPTO
Risky Traitor Tracing and New Differential Privacy Negative Results
In this work we seek to construct collusion-resistant traitor tracing systems with small ciphertexts from standard assumptions that also move toward practical efficiency. In our approach we will hold steadfast to the principle of collusion resistance, but relax the requirement on catching a traitor from a successful decoding algorithm. We define a f-risky traitor tracing system as one where the probability of identifying a traitor is $$f(\lambda ,n)$$f(λ,n) times the probability a successful box is produced. We then go on to show how to build such systems from prime order bilinear groups with assumptions close to those used in prior works. Our core system achieves, for any $$k > 0$$k>0, $$f(\lambda ,n) \approx \frac{k}{n + k - 1}$$f(λ,n)≈kn+k-1 where ciphertexts consists of $$(k + 4)$$(k+4) group elements and decryption requires $$(k + 3)$$(k+3) pairing operations.At first glance the utility of such a system might seem questionable since the f we achieve for short ciphertexts is relatively small. Indeed an attacker in such a system can more likely than not get away with producing a decoding box. However, we believe this approach to be viable for four reasons:1.A risky traitor tracing system will provide deterrence against risk averse attackers. In some settings the consequences of being caught might bear a high cost and an attacker will have to weigh his utility of producing a decryption D box against the expected cost of being caught.2.Consider a broadcast system where we want to support low overhead broadcast encrypted communications, but will periodically allow for a more expensive key refresh operation. We refer to an adversary produced algorithm that maintains the ability to decrypt across key refreshes as a persistent decoder. We show how if we employ a risky traitor tracing systems in this setting, even for a small f, we can amplify the chances of catching such a “persistent decoder” to be negligibly close to 1.3.In certain resource constrained settings risky traitor tracing provides a best tracing effort where there are no other collusion-resistant alternatives. For instance, suppose we had to support 100 K users over a radio link that had just 10 KB of additional resources for extra ciphertext overhead. None of the existing $$\sqrt{N}$$N bilinear map systems can fit in these constraints. On the other hand a risky traitor tracing system provides a spectrum of tracing probability versus overhead tradeoffs and can be configured to at least give some deterrence in this setting.4.Finally, we can capture impossibility results for differential privacy from $$\frac{1}{n}$$1n-risky traitor tracing. Since our ciphertexts are short ($$O(\lambda )$$O(λ)), we get the negative result which matches what one would get plugging in the obfuscation based tracing system Boneh-Zhandry [9] solution into the prior impossibility result of Dwork et al. [14].
2018
TCC
Upgrading to Functional Encryption
The notion of Functional Encryption (FE) has recently emerged as a strong primitive with several exciting applications. In this work, we initiate the study of the following question: Can existing public key encryption schemes be “upgraded” to Functional Encryption schemes without changing their public keys or the encryption algorithm? We call a public-key encryption scheme with this property to be FE-compatible. Indeed, assuming ideal obfuscation, it is easy to see that every CCA-secure public-key encryption scheme is FE-compatible. Despite the recent success in using indistinguishability obfuscation to replace ideal obfuscation for many applications, we show that this phenomenon most likely will not apply here. We show that assuming fully homomorphic encryption and the learning with errors (LWE) assumption, there exists a CCA-secure encryption scheme that is provably not FE-compatible. We also show that a large class of natural CCA-secure encryption schemes proven secure in the random oracle model are not FE-compatible in the random oracle model.Nevertheless, we identify a key structure that, if present, is sufficient to provide FE-compatibility. Specifically, we show that assuming sub-exponentially secure iO and sub-exponentially secure one way functions, there exists a class of public key encryption schemes which we call Special-CCA secure encryption schemes that are in fact, FE-compatible. In particular, each of the following popular CCA secure encryption schemes (some of which existed even before the notion of FE was introduced) fall into the class of Special-CCA secure encryption schemes and are thus FE-compatible:1.[CHK04] when instantiated with the IBE scheme of [BB04].2.[CHK04] when instantiated with any Hierarchical IBE scheme.3.[PW08] when instantiated with any Lossy Trapdoor Function.
2018
TCC
Impossibility of Simulation Secure Functional Encryption Even with Random Oracles
In this work we study the feasibility of achieving simulation security in functional encryption (FE) in the random oracle model. Our main result is negative in that we give a functionality for which it is impossible to achieve simulation security even with the aid of random oracles.We begin by giving a formal definition of simulation security that explicitly incorporates the random oracles. Next, we show a particular functionality for which it is impossible to achieve simulation security. Here messages are interpreted as seeds to a (weak) pseudorandom function family F and private keys are ascribed to points in the domain of the function. On a message s and private key x one can learn F(s, x). We show that there exists an attacker that makes a polynomial number of private key queries followed by a single ciphertext query for which there exists no simulator.Our functionality and attacker access pattern closely matches the standard model impossibility result of Agrawal, Gorbunov, Vaikuntanathan and Wee (CRYPTO 2013). The crux of their argument is that no simulator can succinctly program in the outputs of an unbounded number of evaluations of a pseudorandom function family into a fixed size ciphertext. However, their argument does not apply in the random oracle setting since the oracle acts as an additional conduit of information which the simulator can program. We overcome this barrier by proposing an attacker who decrypts the challenge ciphertext with the secret keys issued earlier without using the random oracle, even though the decryption algorithm may require it. This involves collecting most of the useful random oracle queries in advance, without giving the simulator too many opportunities to program.On the flip side, we demonstrate the utility of the random oracle in simulation security. Given only public key encryption and low-depth PRGs we show how to build an FE system that is simulation secure for any poly-time attacker that makes an unbounded number of message queries, but an a-priori bounded number of key queries. This bests what is possible in the standard model where it is only feasible to achieve security for an attacker that is bounded both in the number of key and message queries it makes. We achieve this by creating a system that leverages the random oracle to get one-key security and then adapt previously known techniques to boost the system to resist up to q queries.Finally, we ask whether it is possible to achieve simulation security for an unbounded number of messages and keys, but where all key queries are made after the message queries. We show this too is impossible to achieve using a different twist on our first impossibility result.
2018
TCC
Traitor-Tracing from LWE Made Simple and Attribute-Based
A traitor tracing scheme is a public key encryption scheme for which there are many secret decryption keys. Any of these keys can decrypt a ciphertext; moreover, even if a coalition of users collude, put together their decryption keys and attempt to create a new decryption key, there is an efficient algorithm to trace the new key to at least one the colluders.Recently, Goyal, Koppula and Waters (GKW, STOC 18) provided the first traitor tracing scheme from LWE with ciphertext and secret key sizes that grow polynomially in $$\log n$$, where n is the number of users. The main technical building block in their construction is a strengthening of (bounded collusion secure) secret-key functional encryption which they refer to as mixed functional encryption (FE).In this work, we improve upon and extend the GKW traitor tracing scheme:We provide simpler constructions of mixed FE schemes based on the LWE assumption. Our constructions improve upon the GKW construction in terms of expressiveness, modularity, and security.We provide a construction of attribute-based traitor tracing for all circuits based on the LWE assumption.
2017
EUROCRYPT
2017
PKC
2017
PKC
2017
TCC
2016
EUROCRYPT
2016
EUROCRYPT
2016
CRYPTO
2016
ASIACRYPT
2016
TCC
2015
JOFC
2015
EPRINT
2015
EPRINT
2015
EPRINT
2015
EPRINT
2015
TCC
2015
EUROCRYPT
2015
CRYPTO
2015
ASIACRYPT
2015
ASIACRYPT
2015
ASIACRYPT
2014
CRYPTO
2014
CRYPTO
2014
EUROCRYPT
2014
EUROCRYPT
2014
PKC
2014
EPRINT
2014
EPRINT
2014
EPRINT
2014
EPRINT
2014
EPRINT
2014
EPRINT
2014
EPRINT
2014
EPRINT
2014
EPRINT
2013
PKC
2013
PKC
2013
CRYPTO
2013
CRYPTO
2013
CRYPTO
2013
CRYPTO
2013
ASIACRYPT
2013
JOFC
Compact Proofs of Retrievability
Hovav Shacham Brent Waters
In a proof-of-retrievability system, a data storage center must prove to a verifier that he is actually storing all of a client’s data. The central challenge is to build systems that are both efficient and provably secure—that is, it should be possible to extract the client’s data from any prover that passes a verification check. In this paper, we give the first proof-of-retrievability schemes with full proofs of security against arbitrary adversaries in the strongest model, that of Juels and Kaliski.Our first scheme, built from BLS signatures and secure in the random oracle model, features a proof-of-retrievability protocol in which the client’s query and server’s response are both extremely short. This scheme allows public verifiability: anyone can act as a verifier, not just the file owner. Our second scheme, which builds on pseudorandom functions (PRFs) and is secure in the standard model, allows only private verification. It features a proof-of-retrievability protocol with an even shorter server’s response than our first scheme, but the client’s query is long. Both schemes rely on homomorphic properties to aggregate a proof into one small authenticator value.
2012
TCC
2012
EUROCRYPT
2012
EUROCRYPT
2012
EUROCRYPT
2012
CRYPTO
2012
CRYPTO
2012
CRYPTO
2012
ASIACRYPT
2011
PKC
2011
TCC
2011
TCC
2011
TCC
2011
CRYPTO
2011
EUROCRYPT
2011
EUROCRYPT
2010
TCC
2010
EPRINT
Constructing Verifiable Random Functions with Large Input Spaces
Susan Hohenberger Brent Waters
We present a family of verifiable random functions which are provably secure for exponentially-large input spaces under a non-interactive complexity assumption. Prior constructions required either an interactive complexity assumption or one that could tolerate a factor 2^n security loss for n-bit inputs. Our construction is practical and inspired by the pseudorandom functions of Naor and Reingold and the verifiable random functions of Lysyanskaya. Set in a bilinear group, where the Decisional Diffie-Hellman problem is easy to solve, we require the Decisional Diffie-Hellman Exponent assumption in the standard model, without a common reference string. Our core idea is to apply a simulation technique where the large space of VRF inputs is collapsed into a small (polynomial-size) input in the view of the reduction algorithm. This view, however, is information-theoretically hidden from the attacker. Since the input space is exponentially large, we can first apply a collision-resistant hash function to handle arbitrarily-large inputs.
2010
EUROCRYPT
2010
EUROCRYPT
2010
EPRINT
Fully Secure Functional Encryption: Attribute-Based Encryption and (Hierarchical) Inner Product Encryption
In this paper, we present two fully secure functional encryption schemes. Our first result is a fully secure attribute-based encryption (ABE) scheme. Previous constructions of ABE were only proven to be selectively secure. We achieve full security by adapting the dual system encryption methodology recently introduced by Waters and previously leveraged to obtain fully secure IBE and HIBE systems. The primary challenge in applying dual system encryption to ABE is the richer structure of keys and ciphertexts. In an IBE or HIBE system, keys and ciphertexts are both associated with the same type of simple object: identities. In an ABE system, keys and ciphertexts are associated with more complex objects: attributes and access formulas. We use a novel information-theoretic argument to adapt the dual system encryption methodology to the more complicated structure of ABE systems. We construct our system in composite order bilinear groups, where the order is a product of three primes. We prove the security of our system from three static assumptions. Our ABE scheme supports arbitrary monotone access formulas. Our second result is a fully secure (attribute-hiding) predicate encryption (PE) scheme for inner-product predicates. As for ABE, previous constructions of such schemes were only proven to be selectively secure. Security is proven under a non-interactive assumption whose size does not depend on the number of queries. The scheme is comparably efficient to existing selectively secure schemes. We also present a fully secure hierarchical PE scheme under the same assumption. The key technique used to obtain these results is an elaborate combination of the dual system encryption methodology (adapted to the structure of inner product PE systems) and a new approach on bilinear pairings using the notion of dual pairing vector spaces (DPVS) proposed by Okamoto and Takashima.
2010
EPRINT
Identity-Based Encryption Secure under Selective Opening Attack
Mihir Bellare Brent Waters Scott Yilek
We present the first Identity-Based Encryption (IBE) scheme that is proven secure against selective opening attack (SOA). This means that if an adversary, given a vector of ciphertexts, adaptively corrupts some fraction of the senders, exposing not only their messages but also their coins, the privacy of the unopened messages is guaranteed. Achieving security against such attacks is well-known to be challenging and was only recently solved in the PKE case via lossy encryption. We explain why those methods won’t work for IBE and instead rely on an approach based on encryption schemes that have a property we call one-sided public openability. Our SOA-secure IBE scheme is quite efficient and proven secure without random oracles based on the Decision Linear assumption.
2010
EPRINT
Decentralizing Attribute-Based Encryption
Allison B. Lewko Brent Waters
We propose a Multi-Authority Attribute-Based Encryption (ABE) system. In our system, any party can become an authority and there is no requirement for any global coordination other than the creation of an initial set of common reference parameters. A party can simply act as an ABE authority by creating a public key and issuing private keys to different users that reflect their attributes. A user can encrypt data in terms of any boolean formula over attributes issued from any chosen set of authorities. Finally, our system does not require any central authority. In constructing our system, our largest technical hurdle is to make it collusion resistant. Prior Attribute-Based Encryption systems achieved collusion resistance when the ABE system authority ``tied'' together different components (representing different attributes) of a user's private key by randomizing the key. However, in our system each component will come from a potentially different authority, where we assume no coordination between such authorities. We create new techniques to tie key components together and prevent collusion attacks between users with different global identifiers. We prove our system secure using the recent dual system encryption methodology where the security proof works by first converting the challenge ciphertexts and private keys to a semi-functional form and then arguing security. We follow a recent variant of the dual system proof technique due to Lewko and Waters and build our system using bilinear groups of composite order. We prove security under similar static assumptions to the LW paper in the random oracle model.
2010
EPRINT
On the Insecurity of Parallel Repetition for Leakage Resilience
Allison B. Lewko Brent Waters
A fundamental question in leakage-resilient cryptography is: can leakage resilience always be amplified by parallel repetition? It is natural to expect that if we have a leakage-resilient primitive tolerating $\ell$ bits of leakage, we can take $n$ copies of it to form a system tolerating $n\ell$ bits of leakage. In this paper, we show that this is not always true. We construct a public key encryption system which is secure when at most $\ell$ bits are leaked, but if we take $n$ copies of the system and encrypt a share of the message under each using an $n$-out-of-$n$ secret-sharing scheme, leaking $n\ell$ bits renders the system insecure. Our results hold either in composite order bilinear groups under a variant of the subgroup decision assumption \emph{or} in prime order bilinear groups under the decisional linear assumption. We note that the $n$ copies of our public key systems share a common reference parameter.
2010
EPRINT
Achieving Leakage Resilience Through Dual System Encryption
In this work, we show that strong leakage resilience for cryptosystems with advanced functionalities can be obtained quite naturally within the methodology of dual system encryption, recently introduced by Waters. We demonstrate this concretely by providing fully secure IBE, HIBE, and ABE systems which are resilient to bounded leakage from each of many secret keys per user, as well as many master keys. This can be realized as resilience against continual leakage if we assume keys are periodically updated and no (or logarithmic) leakage is allowed during the update process. Our systems are obtained by applying a simple modification to previous dual system encryption constructions: essentially this provides a generic tool for making dual system encryption schemes leakage-resilient.
2009
TCC
2009
PKC
2009
EUROCRYPT
2009
EUROCRYPT
2009
CRYPTO
2009
CRYPTO
2009
EPRINT
Realizing Hash-and-Sign Signatures under Standard Assumptions
Susan Hohenberger Brent Waters
Currently, there are relatively few instances of ``hash-and-sign'' signatures in the standard model. Moreover, most current instances rely on strong and less studied assumptions such as the Strong RSA and q-Strong Diffie-Hellman assumptions. In this paper, we present a new approach for realizing hash-and-sign signatures in the standard model. In our approach, a signer associates each signature with an index i that represents how many signatures that signer has issued up to that point. Then, to make use of this association, we create simple and efficient techniques that restrict an adversary which makes q signature requests to forge on an index no greater than 2q. Finally, we develop methods for dealing with this restricted adversary. Our approach requires that a signer maintains a small amount of state --- a counter of the number of signatures issued. We achieve two new realizations for hash-and-sign signatures respectively based on the RSA assumption and the Computational Diffie-Hellman assumption in bilinear groups.
2008
EUROCRYPT
2008
EPRINT
Ciphertext-Policy Attribute-Based Encryption: An Expressive, Efficient, and Provably Secure Realization
Brent Waters
We present new techniques for realizing Ciphertext-Policy Attribute Encryption (CP-ABE) under concrete and noninteractive cryptographic assumptions. Our solutions allow any encryptor to specify access control in terms of an LSSS matrix, $M$, over the attributes in the system. We present three different constructions that allow different tradeoffs between the systems efficiency and the complexity of the assumptions used. All three constructions use a common methodology of ``directly'' solving the CP-ABE problem that enable us to get much better efficiency than prior approaches.
2008
ASIACRYPT
2008
EPRINT
Compact Proofs of Retrievability
Hovav Shacham Brent Waters
In a proof-of-retrievability system, a data storage center must prove to a verifier that he is actually storing all of a client's data. The central challenge is to build systems that are both efficient and provably secure -- that is, it should be possible to extract the client's data from any prover that passes a verification check. All previous provably secure solutions require that a prover send O(l) authenticator values (i.e., MACs or signatures) to verify a file, for a total of O(l^2) bits of communication, where l is the security parameter. The extra cost over the ideal O(l) communication can be prohibitive in systems where a verifier needs to check many files. We create the first compact and provably secure proof of retrievability systems. Our solutions allow for compact proofs with just one authenticator value -- in practice this can lead to proofs with as little as 40 bytes of communication. We present two solutions with similar structure. The first one is privately verifiable and builds elegantly on pseudorandom functions (PRFs); the second allows for publicly verifiable proofs and is built from the signature scheme of Boneh, Lynn, and Shacham in bilinear groups. Both solutions rely on homomorphic properties to aggregate a proof into one small authenticator value.
2008
EPRINT
Adaptive Security in Broadcast Encryption Systems
Craig Gentry Brent Waters
We present new techniques for achieving adaptive security in broadcast encryption systems. Previous work on fully-collusion resistant broadcast encryption with short ciphertexts was limited to only considering static security. First, we present a new definition of security that we call semi-static security and show a generic ``two-key" transformation from semi-statically secure systems to adaptively secure ones that have comparable-sized ciphertexts. Using bilinear maps, we then construct broadcast encryption systems that are semi-statically secure in the standard model and have constant size ciphertexts. Our semi-static constructions work when the number of indices or identifiers in the system is polynomial in the security parameter. For identity-based broadcast encryption, where the number of potential indices or identifiers may be exponential, we present the first adaptively secure system with sublinear ciphertexts. We prove security in the standard model.
2008
EPRINT
Delegating Capabilities in Predicate Encryption Systems
Elaine Shi Brent Waters
In predicate encryption systems, given a capability, one can evaluate one or more predicates on the encrypted data, while all other information about the plaintext remains hidden. We consider the first such systems to permit delegation of capabilities. In a system that supports delegation, a user Alice who has a capability can delegate to Bob a more restrictive capability, which allows him to learn less about encrypted data than she did. We formally define delegation in predicate encryption systems, and propose a new security definition for delegation. In addition, we present an efficient construction supporting conjunctive queries. The security of our construction can be reduced to the general 3-party Bilinear Diffie-Hellman assumption, and the Bilinear Decisional Diffie-Hellman assumption in composite-order bilinear groups.
2008
EPRINT
Revocation Systems with Very Small Private Keys
Amit Sahai Brent Waters
In this work, we design a new public key broadcast encryption system, and we focus on a critical parameter of device key size: the amount of the cryptographic key material that must be stored securely on the receiving devices. Our new scheme has ciphertext size overhead O(r), where $r$ is the number of revoked users, and the size of public and private keys is only a constant number of group elements from an elliptic-curve group of prime order. All previous work, even in the restricted case of systems based on symmetric keys, required at least lg(n) keys stored on each device. In addition, we show that our techniques can be used to realize Attribute-Based Encryption (ABE) systems with non-monotonic access formulas, where are key storage is significantly more efficient than previous solutions. Our results are in the standard model under a new, but non-interactive, assumption.
2008
EPRINT
Compact Signatures for Network Coding
Jonathan Katz Brent Waters
Network coding offers increased throughput and improved robustness to random faults in completely decentralized networks. Since it does not require centralized control, network coding has been suggested for routing packets in ad-hoc networks, for content distribution in P2P file systems, and for improving the efficiency of large-scale data dissemination over the Internet. In contrast to traditional routing schemes, however, network coding requires intermediate nodes to process and modify data packets en route. For this reason, standard signature schemes are inapplicable and it is therefore a challenge to provide resilience to tampering by malicious nodes in the network. Here, we propose a novel homomorphic signature scheme that can be used in conjunction with network coding to prevent malicious modification of data. The overhead of our scheme is small and independent of the file or packet size: both public keys and signatures in our scheme consist of only a single group element.
2008
EPRINT
Signing a Linear Subspace: Signature Schemes for Network Coding
Network coding offers increased throughput and improved robustness to random faults in completely decentralized networks. In contrast to traditional routing schemes, however, network coding requires intermediate nodes to modify data packets en route; for this reason, standard signature schemes are inapplicable and it is a challenge to provide resilience to tampering by malicious nodes. Here, we propose two signature schemes that can be used in conjunction with network coding to prevent malicious modification of data. In particular, our schemes can be viewed as signing linear subspaces in the sense that a signature on V authenticates exactly those vectors in V. Our first scheme is homomorphic and has better performance, with both public key size and per-packet overhead being constant. Our second scheme does not rely on random oracles and uses weaker assumptions. We also prove a lower bound on the length of signatures for linear subspaces showing that both of our schemes are essentially optimal in this regard.
2008
CRYPTO
2007
PKC
2007
PKC
2007
TCC
2007
EPRINT
Attribute-Based Encryption with Non-Monotonic Access Structures
We construct an Attribute-Based Encryption (ABE) scheme that allows a user's private key to be expressed in terms of any access formula over attributes. Previous ABE schemes were limited to expressing only monotonic access structures. We provide a proof of security for our scheme based on the Decisional Bilinear Diffie-Hellman (BDH) assumption. Furthermore, the performance of our new scheme compares favorably with existing, less-expressive schemes.
2007
EPRINT
Lossy Trapdoor Functions and Their Applications
Chris Peikert Brent Waters
We propose a new general primitive called lossy trapdoor functions (lossy TDFs), and realize it under a variety of different number theoretic assumptions, including hardness of the decisional Diffie-Hellman (DDH) problem and the worst-case hardness of standard lattice problems. Using lossy TDFs, we develop a new approach for constructing many important cryptographic primitives, including standard trapdoor functions, CCA-secure cryptosystems, collision-resistant hash functions, and more. All of our constructions are simple, efficient, and black-box. Taken all together, these results resolve some long-standing open problems in cryptography. They give the first known (injective) trapdoor functions based on problems not directly related to integer factorization, and provide the first known CCA-secure cryptosystem based solely on worst-case lattice assumptions.
2007
EPRINT
A Framework for Efficient and Composable Oblivious Transfer
We propose and simple, general, and unified framework for constructing oblivious transfer (OT) protocols that are \emph{efficient}, \emph{universally composable}, and \emph{generally realizable} from a variety of standard number-theoretic assumptions, such as the decisional Diffie-Hellman assumption and the Quadratic Residuosity assumption. Most interestingly, we can also instantiate our framework with \emph{worst-case} complexity assumptions relating to \emph{lattices}. Our OT protocols are round-optimal (one message each way), efficient in the parties' communication and local computation, and use only one reference string for an unbounded number of executions. Furthermore, the protocols can provide \emph{unconditional} security to either the sender or receiver, simply by changing the distribution of the reference string. (For several versions of the protocol, even a common \emph{random} string suffices.) One of our key technical contributions is a simple and novel abstraction that we call a \emph{dual-mode} cryptosystem. We implement dual-mode cryptosystems by taking a unified view of several cryptosystems in the literature that have what we call ``message-lossy'' public keys, whose defining property is that a ciphertext produced under such a key carries \emph{no information} (even statistically) about the encrypted message. As a contribution of independent interest, we also provide a multi-bit version of Regev's lattice-based cryptosystem (STOC 2005) whose time and space efficiency are improved by a linear factor. In particular, the amortized runtime per message bit is only $\tilde{O}(n)$ bit operations, and the ciphertext expansion can be made as small as a constant.
2007
EPRINT
Predicate Encryption Supporting Disjunctions, Polynomial Equations, and Inner Products
Jonathan Katz Amit Sahai Brent Waters
Predicate encryption is a new paradigm generalizing, among other things, identity-based encryption. In a predicate encryption scheme, secret keys correspond to predicates and ciphertexts are associated with attributes; the secret key SK_f corresponding to the predicate f can be used to decrypt a ciphertext associated with attribute I if and only if f(I)=1. Constructions of such schemes are currently known for relatively few classes of predicates. We construct such a scheme for predicates corresponding to the evaluation of inner products over N (for some large integer N). This, in turn, enables constructions in which predicates correspond to the evaluation of disjunctions, polynomials, CNF/DNF formulae, or threshold predicates (among others). Besides serving as what we feel is a significant step forward in the theory of predicate encryption, our results lead to a number of applications that are interesting in their own right.
2006
CRYPTO
2006
EUROCRYPT
2006
EUROCRYPT
2006
EUROCRYPT
2006
PKC
2006
EPRINT
Fully Collusion Resistant Traitor Tracing
Dan Boneh Amit Sahai Brent Waters
We construct the first fully collusion resistant tracing traitors system with sublinear size ciphertexts and constant size private keys. More precisely, let $N$ be the total number of users. Our system generates ciphertexts of size $O(\sqrt{N})$ and private keys of size $O(1)$. We build our system by first building a simpler primitive called private linear broadcast encryption (PLBE). We then show that any PLBE gives a tracing traitors system with the same parameters. Our system uses bilinear maps in groups of composite order.
2006
EPRINT
Anonymous Hierarchical Identity-Based Encryption (Without Random Oracles)
Xavier Boyen Brent Waters
We present an identity-based cryptosystem that features fully anonymous ciphertexts and hierarchical key delegation. We give a proof of security in the standard model, based on the mild Decision Linear complexity assumption in bilinear groups. The system is efficient and practical, with small ciphertexts of size linear in the depth of the hierarchy. Applications include search on encrypted data, fully private communication, etc. Our results resolve two open problems pertaining to anonymous identity-based encryption, our scheme being the first to offer provable anonymity in the standard model, in addition to being the first to realize fully anonymous HIBE at all levels in the hierarchy.
2006
EPRINT
Sequential Aggregate Signatures and Multisignatures without Random Oracles
We present the first aggregate signature, the first multisignature, and the first verifiably encrypted signature provably secure without random oracles. Our constructions derive from a novel application of a recent signature scheme due to Waters. Signatures in our aggregate signature scheme are sequentially constructed, but knowledge of the order in which messages were signed is not necessary for verification. The aggregate signatures obtained are shorter than Lysyanskaya et~al. sequential aggregates and can be verified more efficiently than Boneh et~al. aggregates. We also consider applications to secure routing and proxy signatures.
2006
EPRINT
Conjunctive, Subset, and Range Queries on Encrypted Data
Dan Boneh Brent Waters
We construct public-key systems that support comparison queries ($x \geq a)$ on encrypted data as well as more general queries such as subset queries $(x \in S)$. These systems also support arbitrary conjunctive queries ($P_1 \wedge \cdots \wedge P_\ell$) without leaking information on individual conjuncts. We present a general framework for constructing and analyzing public-key systems supporting queries on encrypted data.
2006
EPRINT
Efficient Ring Signatures without Random Oracles
Hovav Shacham Brent Waters
We describe the first efficient ring signature scheme secure, without random oracles, based on standard assumptions. Our ring signatures are based in bilinear groups. For $l$ members of a ring our signatures consist of $2l+2$ group elements and require $2l+3$ pairings to verify. We prove our scheme secure in the strongest security model proposed by Bender, Katz, and Morselli: namely, we show our scheme to be anonymous against full key exposure and unforgeable with respect to insider corruption. A shortcoming of our approach is that all the users' keys must be defined in the same group.
2006
EPRINT
Forward-Secure Signatures with Untrusted Update
In most forward-secure signature constructions, a program that updates a user's private signing key must have full access to the private key. Unfortunately, these schemes are incompatible with several security architectures including Gnu Privacy Guard (GPG) and S/MIME, where the private key is encrypted under a user password as a ``second factor'' of security, in case the private key storage is corrupted, but the password is not. We introduce the concept of forward-secure signatures with untrusted update, where the key update can be performed on an encrypted version of the key. Forward secure signatures with untrusted update allow us to add forward security to signatures, while still keeping passwords as a second factor of security. We provide a construction that has performance characteristics comparable with the best existing forward-secure signatures. In addition, we describe how to modify the Bellare-Miner forward secure signature scheme to achieve untrusted update.
2006
EPRINT
A Fully Collusion Resistant Broadcast, Trace, and Revoke System
Dan Boneh Brent Waters
We introduce a simple primitive called Augmented Broadcast Encryption (ABE) that is sufficient for constructing broadcast encryption, traitor-tracing, and trace-and-revoke systems. These ABE-based constructions are resistant to an arbitrary number of colluders and are secure against adaptive adversaries. Furthermore, traitor tracing requires no secrets and can be done by anyone. These broadcast systems are designed for broadcasting to arbitrary sets of users. We then construct a secure ABE system for which the resulting concrete trace-and-revoke system has ciphertexts and private keys of size $\sqrt{N}$ where $N$ is the total number of users in the system. In particular, this is the first example of a fully collusion resistant broadcast system with sub-linear size ciphertexts and private keys that is secure against adaptive adversaries. The system is publicly traceable.
2006
EPRINT
Attribute-Based Encryption for Fine-Grained Access Control of Encrypted Data
As more sensitive data is shared and stored by third-party sites on the Internet, there will be a need to encrypt data stored at these sites. One drawback of encrypting data, is that it can be selectively shared only at a coarse-grained level (i.e., giving another party your private key). We develop a new cryptosystem for fine-grained sharing of encrypted data that we call Key-Policy Attribute-Based Encryption (KP-ABE). In our cryptosystem, ciphertexts are labeled with sets of attributes and private keys are associated with access structures that control which ciphertexts a user is able to decrypt. We demonstrate the applicability of our construction to sharing of audit-log information and broadcast encryption. Our construction supports delegation of private keys which subsumes Hierarchical Identity-Based Encryption (HIBE).
2005
CRYPTO
2005
EUROCRYPT
2005
EUROCRYPT
2005
EPRINT
Collusion Resistant Broadcast Encryption With Short Ciphertexts and Private Keys
Dan Boneh Craig Gentry Brent Waters
We describe two new public key broadcast encryption systems for stateless receivers. Both systems are fully secure against any number of colluders. In our first construction both ciphertexts and private keys are of constant size (only two group elements), for any subset of receivers. The public key size in this system is linear in the total number of receivers. Our second system is a generalization of the first that provides a tradeoff between ciphertext size and public key size. For example, we achieve a collusion resistant broadcast system for n users where both ciphertexts and public keys are of size O(sqrt(n)) for any subset of receivers. We discuss several applications of these systems.
2005
EPRINT
Direct Chosen Ciphertext Security from Identity-Based Techniques
Xavier Boyen Qixiang Mei Brent Waters
We describe a new encryption technique that is secure in the standard model against adaptive chosen ciphertext (CCA2) attacks. We base our method on two very efficient Identity-Based Encryption (IBE) schemes without random oracles due to Boneh and Boyen, and Waters. Unlike previous CCA2-secure cryptosystems that use IBE as a black box, our approach is endogenous, very simple, and compact. It makes direct use of the underlying IBE structure, and requires no cryptographic primitive other than the IBE scheme itself. This conveys several advantages. We achieve shorter ciphertext size than the best known instantiations of the other methods, and our technique is as efficient as the Boneh and Katz method (and more so than that of Canetti, Halevi, and Katz). Further, our method operates nicely on hierarchical IBE, and since it allows the validity of ciphertexts to be checked publicly, it can be used to construct systems with non-interactive threshold decryption. In this paper we describe two main constructions: a full encryption system based on the Waters adaptive-ID secure IBE, and a KEM based on the Boneh-Boyen selective-ID secure IBE. Both systems are shown CCA2-secure in the standard model, the latter with a tight reduction. We discuss several uses and extensions of our approach, and draw comparisons with other schemes that are provably secure in the standard model.
2005
EPRINT
Compact Group Signatures Without Random Oracles
Xavier Boyen Brent Waters
We present the first efficient group signature scheme that is provably secure without random oracles. We achieve this result by combining provably secure hierarchical signatures in bilinear groups with a novel adaptation of the recent Non-Interactive Zero Knowledge proofs of Groth, Ostrovsky, and Sahai. The size of signatures in our scheme is logarithmic in the number of signers; we prove it secure under the Computational Diffie-Hellman and the Subgroup Decision assumptions in the model of Bellare, Micciancio, and Warinshi, as relaxed by Boneh, Boyen, and Shacham.
2004
EPRINT
Fuzzy Identity Based Encryption
Amit Sahai Brent Waters
We introduce a new type of Identity-Based Encryption (IBE) scheme that we call Fuzzy Identity-Based Encryption. In Fuzzy IBE we view an identity as set of descriptive attributes. A Fuzzy IBE scheme allows for a private key for an identity, $\omega$, to decrypt a ciphertext encrypted with an identity, $\omega'$, if and only if the identities $\omega$ and $\omega'$ are close to each other as measured by the ``set overlap'' distance metric. A Fuzzy IBE scheme can be applied to enable encryption using biometric inputs as identities; the error-tolerance property of a Fuzzy IBE scheme is precisely what allows for the use of biometric identities, which inherently will have some noise each time they are sampled. Additionally, we show that Fuzzy-IBE can be used for a type of application that we term ``attribute-based encryption''. In this paper we present two constructions of Fuzzy IBE schemes. Our constructions can be viewed as an Identity-Based Encryption of a message under several attributes that compose a (fuzzy) identity. Our IBE schemes are both error-tolerant and secure against collusion attacks. Additionally, our basic construction does not use random oracles. We prove the security of our schemes under the Selective-ID security model.
2004
EPRINT
Efficient Identity-Based Encryption Without Random Oracles
Brent R. Waters
We present the first efficient Identity-Based Encryption (IBE) scheme that is fully secure without random oracles. We first present our IBE construction and reduce the security of our scheme to the decisional Bilinear Diffie-Hellman (BDH) problem. Additionally, we show that our techniques can be used to build a new signature scheme that is secure under the computational Diffie-Hellman assumption without random oracles.

Program Committees

Eurocrypt 2019
Eurocrypt 2017
TCC 2016
Crypto 2014
Crypto 2010
PKC 2010
TCC 2009
Crypto 2008
Eurocrypt 2008
Eurocrypt 2007
Asiacrypt 2007