International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

CryptoDB

Mustafa Khairallah

Publications

Year
Venue
Title
2024
EUROCRYPT
Tight Security of TNT and Beyond: Attacks, Proofs and Possibilities for the Cascaded LRW Paradigm
Liskov, Rivest and Wagner laid the theoretical foundations for tweakable block ciphers (TBC). In a seminal paper, they proposed two (up to) birthday-bound secure design strategies --- LRW1 and LRW2 --- to convert any block cipher into a TBC. Several of the follow-up works consider cascading of LRW-type TBCs to construct beyond-the-birthday bound (BBB) secure TBCs. Landecker et al. demonstrated that just two-round cascading of LRW2 can already give a BBB security. Bao et al. undertook a similar exercise in context of LRW1 with TNT --- a three-round cascading of LRW1 --- that has been shown to achieve BBB security as well. In this paper, we present a CCA distinguisher on TNT that achieves a non-negligible advantage with $ O(2^{n/2}) $ queries, directly contradicting the security claims made by the designers. We provide a rigorous and complete advantage calculation coupled with experimental verification that further support our claim. Next, we provide new and simple proofs of birthday-bound CCA security for both TNT and its single-key variant, which confirm the tightness of our attack. Furthering on to a more positive note, we show that adding just one more block cipher call, referred as 4-LRW1, does not just re-establish the BBB security, but also amplifies it up to $ 2^{3n/4} $ queries. As a side-effect of this endeavour, we propose a new abstraction of the cascaded LRW-design philosophy, referred to as the LRW+ paradigm, comprising two block cipher calls sandwiched between a pair of tweakable universal hashes. This helps us to provide a modular proof covering all cascaded LRW constructions with at least $ 2 $ rounds, including 4-LRW1, and its more established relative, the well-known CLRW2, or more aptly, 2-LRW2.
2024
CIC
CCA Security with Short AEAD Tags
Mustafa Khairallah
<p>The size of the authentication tag represents a significant overhead for applications that are limited by bandwidth or memory. Hence, some authenticated encryption designs have a smaller tag than the required privacy level, which was also suggested by the NIST lightweight cryptography standardization project. In the ToSC 2022, two papers have raised questions about the IND-CCA security of AEAD schemes in this situation. These papers show that (a) online AE cannot provide IND-CCA security beyond the tag length, and (b) it is possible to have IND-CCA security beyond the tag length in a restricted Encode-then-Encipher framework. In this paper, we address some of the remaining gaps in this area. Our main result is to show that, for a fixed stretch, Pseudo-Random Injection security implies IND-CCA security as long as the minimum ciphertext size is at least as large as the required IND-CCA security level. We also show that this bound is tight and that any AEAD scheme that allows empty plaintexts with a fixed stretch cannot achieve IND-CCA security beyond the tag length. Next, we look at the weaker notion of MRAE security, and show that two-pass schemes that achieve MRAE security do not achieve IND-CCA security beyond the tag size. This includes SIV and rugged PRPs. </p>
2024
TOSC
Context-Committing Security of Leveled Leakage-Resilient AEAD
During recent years, research on authenticated encryption has been thriving through two highly active and practically motivated research directions: provable leakage resilience and key- or context-commitment security. However, the intersection of both fields had been overlooked until very recently. In ToSC 1/2024, Struck and Weishäupl studied generic compositions of encryption schemes and message authentication codes for building committing leakage-resilient schemes. They showed that, in general, Encrypt-then-MAC (EtM) and MAC-then-Encrypt (MtE) are not committing while Encrypt-and-MAC (EaM) is, under plausible and weak assumptions on the components. However, real-world schemes are rarely strict blackbox constructions. Instead, while various leakage-resilient schemes follow blueprints inspired by generic compositions, they often tweak them for security or efficiency.In this paper, we study two blueprints, the first one based on EtM for one of the strongest possible levels of leakage resilience. The second one is a single-pass framework based on leveled implementations. We show that, with a careful selection of the underlying primitives such as with identical encryption and authentication keys and a collision-resistant PRF as the MAC, these blueprints are committing. Our results do not contradict the results by Struck and Weishäupl since we pose more, but practically-motivated, requirements on the components. We demonstrate the practical relevance of our results by showing that our results on those blueprints allow us to easily derive proofs that several state-of-the-art leakage-resilient schemes are indeed committing, including TEDT and its descendants TEDT2 and Romulus-T, as well as the single-pass scheme Triplex.
2022
TOSC
Security of COFB against Chosen Ciphertext Attacks 📺
Mustafa Khairallah
COFB is a lightweight Authenticated Encryption with Associated Data (AEAD) mode based on block ciphers. It was proposed in CHES 2017 and is the basis for GIFT-COFB, a finalist in the NIST lightweight standardization project. It comes with provable security results that guarantee its security up to the birthday bound in the nonce-respecting model. However, the designers offer multiple versions of the analysis with different details and the implications of attacks against the scheme are not discussed deeply. In this article, we look at a group of possible forgery and privacy attacks against COFB. We show that the security for both forgery and privacy is bounded by the number of forgery attempts. We show the existence of forgery and privacy attacks with success probability qd/2n/2, given qd forgery attempts. In particular, we show an attack with 2n/2 attempts using only a single known-plaintext encryption query against COFB. While these attacks do not contradict the claims made by the designers of GIFT-COFB, they show its limitations in terms of the number of forgery attempts. They also show that, while COFB generates a 128-bit tag, it behaves in a very similar manner to an AEAD scheme with 64-bit tag. As a result of independent interest, our analysis provides a contradiction to the main theorem of Journal of Cryptology volume 33, pages 703–741 (2020), which includes an improved security proof of COFB compared to the CHES 2017 version. Finally, we discuss the term nqd/2n/2 that appears in the security proof of GIFT-COFB and CHES 2017, showing why there is a security gap between the provable results and the attacks. We emphasize that the results in this article do not threaten the security of GIFT-COFB in the scope of the NIST lightweight cryptography requirements or the claims made by the designers in the specification document of the design.
2022
TOSC
Exploring Integrity of AEADs with Faults: Definitions and Constructions
Sayandeep Saha Mustafa Khairallah Thomas Peyrin
Implementation-based attacks are major concerns for modern cryptography. For symmetric-key cryptography, a significant amount of exploration has taken place in this regard for primitives such as block ciphers. Concerning symmetric-key operating modes, such as Authenticated Encryption with Associated Data (AEAD), the stateof-the-art mainly addresses the passive Side-Channel Attacks (SCA) in the form of leakage resilient cryptography. So far, only a handful of work address Fault Attacks (FA) in the context of AEADs concerning the fundamental properties – integrity and confidentiality. In this paper, we address this gap by exploring mode-level issues arising due to FAs. We emphasize that FAs can be fatal even in cases where the adversary does not aim to extract the long-term secret, but rather tries to violate the basic security requirements (integrity and confidentiality). Notably, we show novel integrity attack examples on state-of-the-art AEAD constructions and even on a prior fault-resilient AEAD construction called SIV$. On the constructive side, we first present new security notions of fault-resilience, for PRF (frPRF), MAC (frMAC) and AEAD (frAE), the latter can be seen as an improved version of the notion introduced by Fischlin and Gunther at CT-RSA’20. Then, we propose new constructions to turn a frPRF into a fault-resilient MAC frMAC (hash-then-frPRF) and into a fault-resilient AEAD frAE (MAC-then-Encrypt-then-MAC or MEM).
2021
ASIACRYPT
DEFAULT: Cipher Level Resistance Against Differential Fault Attack 📺
Differential Fault Analysis (DFA) is a well known cryptanalytic technique that exploits faulty outputs of an encryption device. Despite its popularity and similarity with the classical Differential Analysis (DA), a thorough analysis explaining DFA from a designer's point of view is missing in the literature. To the best of our knowledge, no DFA immune cipher at an algorithmic level has been proposed so far. Furthermore, all known DFA countermeasures somehow depend on the device/protocol or on the implementation such as duplication/comparison. As all of these are outside the scope of the cipher designer, we focus on designing a primitive which can protect from DFA on its own. We present the first concept of cipher level DFA resistance which does not rely on any device/protocol related assumption, nor does it depend on any form of duplication. Our construction is simple, software/hardware friendly and DFA security scales up with the state size. It can be plugged before and/or after (almost) any symmetric key cipher and will ensure a non-trivial search complexity against DFA. One key component in our DFA protection layer is an SBox with linear structures. Such SBoxes have never been used in cipher design as they generally perform poorly against differential attacks. We argue that they in fact represent an interesting trade-off between good cryptographic properties and DFA resistance. As a proof of concept, we construct a DFA protecting layer, named DEFAULT-LAYER, as well as a full-fledged block cipher DEFAULT. Our solutions compare favourably to the state-of-the-art, offering advantages over the sophisticated duplication based solutions like impeccable circuits/CRAFT or infective countermeasures.
2020
TOSC
Weak Keys in the Rekeying Paradigm: Application to COMET and mixFeed 📺
Mustafa Khairallah
In this paper, we study a group of AEAD schemes that use rekeying as a technique to increase efficiency by reducing the state size of the algorithm. We provide a unified model to study the behavior of the keys used in these schemes, called Rekey-and-Chain (RaC). This model helps understand the design of several AEAD schemes. We show generic attacks on these schemes based on the existence of certain types of weak keys. We also show that the borderline between multi-key and single-key analyses of these schemes is not solid and the analysis can be performed independent of the master key, leading sometimes to practical attacks in the multi-key setting. More importantly, the multi-key analysis can be applied in the single key setting, since each message is encrypted with a different key. Consequently, we show gaps in the security analysis of COMET and mixFeed in the single key setting, which led the designers to provide overly optimistic security claims. In the case of COMET, full key recovery can be performed with 264 online queries and 264 offline queries in the single-key setting, or 246 online queries per user and 264 offline queries in the multi-key setting with ∼ 0.5 million users. In the case of mixFeed, we enhance the forgery adversarial advantage in the single-key setting with a factor of 267 compared to what the designers claim. More importantly, our result is just a lower bound of this advantage, since we show that the gap in the analysis of mixFeed depends on properties of the AES Key Schedule that are not well understood and require more cryptanalytic efforts to find a more tight advantage. After reporting these findings, the designers updated their security analyses and accommodated the proposed attacks.
2020
TOSC
Duel of the Titans: The Romulus and Remus Families of Lightweight AEAD Algorithms 📺
In this article, we propose two new families of very lightweight and efficient authenticated encryption with associated data (AEAD) modes, Romulus and Remus, that provide security beyond the birthday bound with respect to the block-length n. The former uses a tweakable block cipher (TBC) as internal primitive and can be proven secure in the standard model. The later uses a block cipher (BC) as internal primitive and can be proven secure in the ideal cipher model. Both our modes allow to switch very easily from the nonce-respecting to the nonce-misuse scenario.Previous constructions, such as ΘCB3, are quite computationally efficient, yet needing a large memory for implementation, which makes them unsuitable for platforms where lightweight cryptography should play a key role. Romulus and Remus break this barrier by introducing a new architecture evolved from a BC mode COFB. They achieve the best of what can be possible with TBC – the optimal computational efficiency (rate-1 operation) and the minimum state size of a TBC mode (i.e., (n + t)-bit for n-bit block, t-bit tweak TBC), with almost equivalent provable security as ΘCB3. Actually, our comparisons show that both our designs present superior performances when compared to all other recent lightweight AEAD modes, being BC-based, TBC-based or sponge-based, in the nonce-respecting or nonce-misuse scenario. We eventually describe how to instantiate Romulus and Remus modes using the Skinny lightweight tweakable block cipher proposed at CRYPTO 2016, including the hardware implementation results