## CryptoDB

### Gabriel Kaptchuk

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2023

EUROCRYPT

Speed-Stacking: Fast Sublinear Zero-Knowledge Proofs for Disjunctions
Abstract

Building on recent disjunctive compilers for zero-knowledge (e.g., Goel et al. [EUROCRYPT'22]), we propose a new compiler that, when applied to sublinear-sized proofs, can result in sublinear-size disjunctive zero-knowledge with sublinear proving times (without meaningfully increasing proof sizes). Our key observation is that simulation in sublinear-size zero-knowledge proof systems can be much faster (both concretely and asymptotically) than the honest prover. We study applying our compiler to two classes of $O(\log n)$-round protocols: interactive oracle proofs, specifically Aurora [EUROCRYPT'19] and Fractal [EUROCRYPT'20], and folding arguments, specifically Compressed $\Sigma$-protocols [CRYPTO'20, CRYPTO'21] and Bulletproofs [S\&P'18]. This study validates that the compiler can lead to significant savings. For example, applying our compiler to Fractal enables us to prove a disjunction of $\ell$ clauses, each of size $N$, with only $O((N+\ell) \cdot \text{polylog}(N))$ computation, versus $O(\ell N \cdot \text{polylog}(N))$ when proving the disjunction directly. We also find that our compiler offers a new lens through which to understand zero-knowledge proofs, evidenced by multiple examples of protocols with the same ``standalone'' complexity that each behave very differently when stacked.

2022

EUROCRYPT

Stacking Sigmas: A Framework to Compose Sigma-Protocols for Disjunctions
📺
Abstract

Zero-Knowledge (ZK) Proofs for disjunctive statements have been a focus of a long line of research. Classical results such as Cramer {\em et al.} [CRYPTO'94] and Abe {\em et al.} [AC'02] design generic compilers that transform certain classes of ZK proofs into ZK proofs for disjunctive statements. However, communication complexity of the resulting protocols in these results ends up being proportional to the total size of all the proofs in the disjunction. More recently, a series of works (e.g. Heath {\em et al.} [EC'20]) has exploited special properties of garbled circuits to construct efficient ZK proofs for disjunctions, where the proof size is only proportional to the length of the largest clause in the disjunction. However, these techniques do not appear to generalize beyond garbled circuits.
In this work, we focus on achieving the best of both worlds. We design a \textit{general framework} that compiles a large class of {unmodified} $\Sigma$-protocols, each for an individual statement, into a new $\Sigma$-protocol that proves a disjunction of these statements. Our framework can be used both when each clause is proved with the same $\Sigma$-protocol and when different $\Sigma$-protocols are used for different clauses. The resulting $\Sigma$-protocol is concretely efficient and has communication complexity proportional to the communication required by the largest clause, with additive terms that are only logarithmic in the number of clauses.
We show that our compiler can be applied to many well-known $\Sigma$-protocols, including classical protocols (\emph{e.g.} Schnorr and Guillou-Quisquater) and modern MPC-in-the-head protocols such as the recent work of Katz, Kolesnikov and Wang [CCS'18] and the Ligero protocol of Ames {\em et al.} [CCS'17] Finally, since all of the protocols in our class can be made non-interactive in the random oracle model using the Fiat-Shamir transform, our result yields the first generic non-interactive zero-knowledge protocol for disjunctions where the communication only depends on the size of the largest clause.

2021

EUROCRYPT

Abuse Resistant Law Enforcement Access Systems
📺
Abstract

The increased deployment of end-to-end encryption has ignited a debate between technology firms and law enforcement agencies over the need for lawful access to encrypted communications. Unfortunately, existing solutions to this problem suffer from serious technical risks, such as the possibility of operator abuse and theft of escrow key material. In this work we investigate the problem of constructing law enforcement access systems that mitigate the possibility of unauthorized surveillance. We first define a set of desirable properties for an abuse-resistant law enforcement access system (ARLEAS), and motivate each of these properties. We then formalize these definitions in the Universal Composability framework, and present two main constructions that realize this definition. The first construction enables {\em prospective} access, allowing surveillance only if encryption occurs after a warrant has been issued and activated. The second, more powerful construction, allows {\em retrospective} access to communications that occurred prior to a warrant's issuance. To illustrate the technical challenge of constructing the latter type of protocol, we conclude by investigating the minimal assumptions required to realize these systems.

2021

EUROCRYPT

Order-C Secure Multiparty Computation for Highly Repetitive Circuits
📺
Abstract

Running secure multiparty computation (MPC) protocols with hundreds or thousands of players would allow leveraging large volunteer networks (such as blockchains and Tor) and help justify honest majority assumptions. However, most existing protocols have at least a linear (multiplicative) dependence on the number of players, making scaling difficult. Known protocols with asymptotic efficiency independent of the number of parties (excluding additive factors) require expensive circuit transformations that induce large overheads.
We observe that the circuits used in many important applications of MPC such as training algorithms used to create machine learning models have a highly repetitive structure. We formalize this class of circuits and propose an MPC protocol that achieves O(|C|) total complexity for this class. We implement our protocol and show that it is practical and outperforms O(n|C|) protocols for modest numbers of players.

2021

CRYPTO

Fluid MPC: Secure Multiparty Computation with Dynamic Participants
📺
Abstract

Existing approaches to secure multiparty computation (MPC) require all participants to commit to the entire duration of the protocol. As interest in MPC continues to grow, it is inevitable that there will be a desire to use it to evaluate increasingly complex functionalities, resulting in computations spanning several hours or days.
Such scenarios call for a *dynamic* participation model for MPC where participants have the flexibility to go offline as needed and (re)join when they have available computational resources. Such a model would also democratize access to privacy-preserving computation by facilitating an ``MPC-as-a-service'' paradigm --- the deployment of MPC in volunteer-operated networks (such as blockchains, where dynamism is inherent) that perform computation on behalf of clients.
In this work, we initiate the study of *fluid MPC*, where parties can dynamically join and leave the computation. The minimum commitment required from each participant is referred to as *fluidity*, measured in the number of rounds of communication that it must stay online. Our contributions are threefold:
- We provide a formal treatment of fluid MPC, exploring various possible modeling choices.
- We construct information-theoretic fluid MPC protocols in the honest-majority setting. Our protocols achieve *maximal fluidity*, meaning that a party can exit the computation after receiving and sending messages in one round.
- We implement our protocol and test it in multiple network settings.

#### Program Committees

- TCC 2022

#### Coauthors

- Gabrielle Beck (1)
- Arka Rai Choudhuri (1)
- Aarushi Goel (4)
- Matthew Green (3)
- Mathias Hall-Andersen (2)
- Abhishek Jain (2)
- Nicholas Spooner (1)
- Gijs Van Laer (1)