## CryptoDB

### Aarushi Goel

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2023

EUROCRYPT

Speed-Stacking: Fast Sublinear Zero-Knowledge Proofs for Disjunctions
Abstract

Building on recent disjunctive compilers for zero-knowledge (e.g., Goel et al. [EUROCRYPT'22]), we propose a new compiler that, when applied to sublinear-sized proofs, can result in sublinear-size disjunctive zero-knowledge with sublinear proving times (without meaningfully increasing proof sizes). Our key observation is that simulation in sublinear-size zero-knowledge proof systems can be much faster (both concretely and asymptotically) than the honest prover. We study applying our compiler to two classes of $O(\log n)$-round protocols: interactive oracle proofs, specifically Aurora [EUROCRYPT'19] and Fractal [EUROCRYPT'20], and folding arguments, specifically Compressed $\Sigma$-protocols [CRYPTO'20, CRYPTO'21] and Bulletproofs [S\&P'18]. This study validates that the compiler can lead to significant savings. For example, applying our compiler to Fractal enables us to prove a disjunction of $\ell$ clauses, each of size $N$, with only $O((N+\ell) \cdot \text{polylog}(N))$ computation, versus $O(\ell N \cdot \text{polylog}(N))$ when proving the disjunction directly. We also find that our compiler offers a new lens through which to understand zero-knowledge proofs, evidenced by multiple examples of protocols with the same ``standalone'' complexity that each behave very differently when stacked.

2023

CRYPTO

Perfect MPC over Layered Graphs
Abstract

The classical “BGW protocol” (Ben-Or, Goldwasser and Wigderson, STOC 1988) shows that secure multiparty computation (MPC) among n parties can be realized with perfect full security if t < n/3 parties are corrupted. This holds against malicious adversaries in the “standard” model for MPC, where a fixed set of n parties is involved in the full execution of the protocol. However, the picture is less clear in the mobile adversary setting of Ostrovsky and Yung (PODC 1991), where the adversary may periodically “move” by uncorrupting parties and corrupting a new set of t parties. In this setting, it is unclear if full security can be achieved against an adversary that is maximally mobile, i.e., moves after every round. The question is further motivated by the “You Only Speak Once” (YOSO) setting of Gentry et al. (Crypto 2021), where not only the adversary is mobile but also each round is executed by a disjoint set of parties. Previous positive results in this model do not achieve perfect security, and either assume probabilistic corruption and a nonstandard communication model, or only realize the weaker goal of security-with-abort. The question of matching the BGW result in these settings remained open.
In this work, we tackle the above two challenges simultaneously. We consider a layered MPC model, a simplified variant of the fluid MPC model of Choudhuri et al. (Crypto 2021). Layered MPC is an instance of standard MPC where the interaction pattern is defined by a layered graph of width n, allowing each party to send secret messages and broadcast messages only to parties in the next layer. We require perfect security against a malicious adversary who may corrupt at most t parties in each layer. Our main result is a perfect, fully secure layered MPC protocol with an
optimal corruption threshold of t < n/3, thus extending the BGW feasibility result to the layered setting. This implies perfectly secure MPC protocols against a maximally mobile adversary.

2023

JOFC

Breaking the $O(\sqrt{n})$-Bit Barrier: Byzantine Agreement with Polylog Bits Per Party
Abstract

Byzantine agreement (BA), the task of n parties to agree on one of their input bits in the face of malicious agents, is a powerful primitive that lies at the core of a vast range of distributed protocols. Interestingly, in BA protocols with the best overall communication, the demands of the parties are highly unbalanced : the amortized cost is $${\tilde{O}}(1)$$ O ~ ( 1 ) bits per party, but some parties must send $$\Omega (n)$$ Ω ( n ) bits. In best known balanced protocols, the overall communication is sub-optimal, with each party communicating $${\tilde{O}}(\sqrt{n})$$ O ~ ( n ) . In this work, we ask whether asymmetry is inherent for optimizing total communication. In particular, is BA possible where each party communicates only $${\tilde{O}}(1)$$ O ~ ( 1 ) bits? Our contributions in this line are as follows: We define a cryptographic primitive— succinctly reconstructed distributed signatures (SRDS)—that suffices for constructing $${\tilde{O}}(1)$$ O ~ ( 1 ) balanced BA. We provide two constructions of SRDS from different cryptographic and public-key infrastructure (PKI) assumptions. The SRDS-based BA follows a paradigm of boosting from “almost-everywhere” agreement to full agreement, and does so in a single round. Complementarily, we prove that PKI setup and cryptographic assumptions are necessary for such protocols in which every party sends o ( n ) messages. We further explore connections between a natural approach toward attaining SRDS and average-case succinct non-interactive argument systems (SNARGs) for a particular type of NP-Complete problems (generalizing Subset-Sum and Subset-Product). Our results provide new approaches forward, as well as limitations and barriers, toward minimizing per-party communication of BA. In particular, we construct the first two BA protocols with $${\tilde{O}}(1)$$ O ~ ( 1 ) balanced communication, offering a trade-off between setup and cryptographic assumptions and answering an open question presented by King and Saia (DISC’09).

2022

EUROCRYPT

Stacking Sigmas: A Framework to Compose Sigma-Protocols for Disjunctions
📺
Abstract

Zero-Knowledge (ZK) Proofs for disjunctive statements have been a focus of a long line of research. Classical results such as Cramer {\em et al.} [CRYPTO'94] and Abe {\em et al.} [AC'02] design generic compilers that transform certain classes of ZK proofs into ZK proofs for disjunctive statements. However, communication complexity of the resulting protocols in these results ends up being proportional to the total size of all the proofs in the disjunction. More recently, a series of works (e.g. Heath {\em et al.} [EC'20]) has exploited special properties of garbled circuits to construct efficient ZK proofs for disjunctions, where the proof size is only proportional to the length of the largest clause in the disjunction. However, these techniques do not appear to generalize beyond garbled circuits.
In this work, we focus on achieving the best of both worlds. We design a \textit{general framework} that compiles a large class of {unmodified} $\Sigma$-protocols, each for an individual statement, into a new $\Sigma$-protocol that proves a disjunction of these statements. Our framework can be used both when each clause is proved with the same $\Sigma$-protocol and when different $\Sigma$-protocols are used for different clauses. The resulting $\Sigma$-protocol is concretely efficient and has communication complexity proportional to the communication required by the largest clause, with additive terms that are only logarithmic in the number of clauses.
We show that our compiler can be applied to many well-known $\Sigma$-protocols, including classical protocols (\emph{e.g.} Schnorr and Guillou-Quisquater) and modern MPC-in-the-head protocols such as the recent work of Katz, Kolesnikov and Wang [CCS'18] and the Ligero protocol of Ames {\em et al.} [CCS'17] Finally, since all of the protocols in our class can be made non-interactive in the random oracle model using the Fiat-Shamir transform, our result yields the first generic non-interactive zero-knowledge protocol for disjunctions where the communication only depends on the size of the largest clause.

2022

EUROCRYPT

Secure Multiparty Computation with Free Branching
📺
Abstract

We study secure multi-party computation (MPC) protocols for branching circuits that contain multiple sub-circuits (i.e., branches) and the output of the circuit is that of single ``active'' branch. Crucially, the identity of the active branch must remain hidden from the protocol participants.
While such circuits can be securely computed by evaluating each branch and then multiplexing the output, such an approach incurs a communication cost linear in the size of the entire circuit. To alleviate this, a series of recent works have investigated the problem of reducing the communication cost of branching executions inside MPC (without relying on fully homomorphic encryption). Most notably, the stacked garbling paradigm [Heath and Kolesnikov, CRYPTO'20] yields garbled circuits for branching circuits whose size only depends on the size of the largest branch. Presently, however, it is not known how to obtain similar communication improvements for secure computation involving {\em more than two parties}.
In this work, we provide a generic framework for branching multi-party computation that supports {\em any number of parties}. The communication complexity of our scheme is proportional to the size of the largest branch and the computation is linear in the size of the entire circuit. We provide an implementation and benchmarks to demonstrate practicality of our approach.

2022

TCC

One-Time Programs from Commodity Hardware
Abstract

One-time programs, originally formulated by Goldwasser et al.~\cite{goldwasser2008one}, are a powerful cryptographic primitive with compelling applications. Known solutions for one-time programs, however, require specialized secure hardware that is not widely available (or, alternatively, access to blockchains and very strong cryptographic tools).
In this work we investigate the possibility of realizing one-time programs from a recent and now more commonly available hardware functionality: the {\em counter lockbox}. A counter lockbox is a stateful functionality that protects an encryption key under a user-specified password, and enforces a limited number of incorrect guesses. Counter lockboxes have become widely available in consumer devices and cloud platforms.
We show that counter lockboxes can be used to realize one-time programs for general functionalities. We develop a number of techniques to reduce the number of counter lockboxes required for our constructions, that may be of independent interest.

2021

EUROCRYPT

Order-C Secure Multiparty Computation for Highly Repetitive Circuits
📺
Abstract

Running secure multiparty computation (MPC) protocols with hundreds or thousands of players would allow leveraging large volunteer networks (such as blockchains and Tor) and help justify honest majority assumptions. However, most existing protocols have at least a linear (multiplicative) dependence on the number of players, making scaling difficult. Known protocols with asymptotic efficiency independent of the number of parties (excluding additive factors) require expensive circuit transformations that induce large overheads.
We observe that the circuits used in many important applications of MPC such as training algorithms used to create machine learning models have a highly repetitive structure. We formalize this class of circuits and propose an MPC protocol that achieves O(|C|) total complexity for this class. We implement our protocol and show that it is practical and outperforms O(n|C|) protocols for modest numbers of players.

2021

CRYPTO

Fluid MPC: Secure Multiparty Computation with Dynamic Participants
📺
Abstract

Existing approaches to secure multiparty computation (MPC) require all participants to commit to the entire duration of the protocol. As interest in MPC continues to grow, it is inevitable that there will be a desire to use it to evaluate increasingly complex functionalities, resulting in computations spanning several hours or days.
Such scenarios call for a *dynamic* participation model for MPC where participants have the flexibility to go offline as needed and (re)join when they have available computational resources. Such a model would also democratize access to privacy-preserving computation by facilitating an ``MPC-as-a-service'' paradigm --- the deployment of MPC in volunteer-operated networks (such as blockchains, where dynamism is inherent) that perform computation on behalf of clients.
In this work, we initiate the study of *fluid MPC*, where parties can dynamically join and leave the computation. The minimum commitment required from each participant is referred to as *fluidity*, measured in the number of rounds of communication that it must stay online. Our contributions are threefold:
- We provide a formal treatment of fluid MPC, exploring various possible modeling choices.
- We construct information-theoretic fluid MPC protocols in the honest-majority setting. Our protocols achieve *maximal fluidity*, meaning that a party can exit the computation after receiving and sending messages in one round.
- We implement our protocol and test it in multiple network settings.

2021

TCC

On Actively-Secure Elementary MPC Reductions
📺
Abstract

We introduce the notion of \emph{elementary MPC} reductions that allow us to securely compute a functionality $f$ by making a single call to a constant-degree ``non-cryptographic'' functionality $g$ without requiring any additional interaction. Roughly speaking, ``non-cryptographic'' means that $g$ does not make use of cryptographic primitives, though the parties can locally call such primitives.
Classical MPC results yield such elementary reductions in various cases including the setting of passive security with full corruption threshold $t<n$ (Yao, FOCS'86; Beaver, Micali, and Rogaway, STOC'90), the setting of full active security against a corrupted minority $t<n/2$ (Damg{\aa}rd and Ishai, Crypto'05), and, for NC1 functionalities, even for the setting of full active (information-theoretic) security with full corruption threshold of $t<n$ (Ishai and Kushilevitz, FOCS'00). This leaves open the existence of an elementary reduction that achieves full active security in the dishonest majority setting for all efficiently computable functions.
Our main result shows that such a reduction is unlikely to exist. Specifically, the existence of a computationally secure elementary reduction that makes black-box use of a PRG and achieves a very weak form of partial fairness (e.g., that holds only when the first party is not corrupted) would allow us to realize any efficiently-computable function by a \emph{constant-round} protocol that achieves a non-trivial notion of information-theoretic passive security. The existence of the latter is a well-known 3-decade old open problem in information-theoretic cryptography (Beaver, Micali, and Rogaway, STOC'90).
On the positive side, we observe that this barrier can be bypassed under any of the following relaxations: (1) non-black-box use of a pseudorandom generator; (2) weaker security guarantees such as security with identifiable abort; or (3) an additional round of communication with the functionality $g$.

2020

ASIACRYPT

Towards Efficiency-Preserving Round Compression in MPC: Do fewer rounds mean more computation?
📺
Abstract

Reducing the rounds of interaction in secure multiparty computation (MPC) protocols has been the topic of study of many works. One popular approach to reduce rounds is to construct {\em round compression compilers}. A round compression compiler is one that takes a highly interactive protocol and transforms it into a protocol with far fewer rounds. The design of round compression compilers has traditionally focused on preserving the security properties of the underlying protocol and in particular, not much attention has been given towards preserving their computational and communication efficiency. Indeed, the recent round compression compilers that yield round-optimal MPC protocols incur large computational and communication overhead.
In this work, we initiate the study of {\em efficiency-preserving} round compression compilers, i.e. compilers that translate the efficiency benefits of the underlying highly interactive protocols to the fewer round setting. Focusing on the honest majority setting (with near-optimal corruption threshold $\frac{1}{2} - \varepsilon$, for any $\varepsilon > 0$), we devise a new compiler that yields two round (i.e., round optimal) semi-honest MPC with similar communication efficiency as the underlying (arbitrary round) protocol. By applying our compiler on the most efficient known MPC protocols, we obtain a two-round semi-honest protocol based on one-way functions, with total communication (and per-party computation) cost $\widetilde{O}(s+n^4)$ -- a significant improvement over prior two-round protocols with cost $\widetilde{O}(n^\tau s+n^{\tau+1}d)$, where $\tau\geq 2$, $s$ is the size of the circuit computing the function and $d$ the corresponding depth. Our result can also be extended to handle malicious adversaries, either using stronger assumptions in the public key infrastructure (PKI) model, or in the plain model using an extra round.
An artifact of our approach is that the resultant protocol is ``unbalanced'' in the amount of computation performed by different parties. We give evidence that this is {\em necessary} in our setting. Our impossibility result makes novel use of the ``MPC-in-the-head" paradigm which has typically been used to demonstrate feasibility results.

2019

EUROCRYPT

Two Round Information-Theoretic MPC with Malicious Security
📺
Abstract

We provide the first constructions of two round information-theoretic (IT) secure multiparty computation (MPC) protocols in the plain model that tolerate any $$t<n/2$$t<n/2 malicious corruptions. Our protocols satisfy the strongest achievable standard notions of security in two rounds in different communication models.Previously, IT-MPC protocols in the plain model either required a larger number of rounds, or a smaller minority of corruptions.

2019

ASIACRYPT

The Broadcast Message Complexity of Secure Multiparty Computation
Abstract

We study the broadcast message complexity of secure multiparty computation (MPC), namely, the total number of messages that are required for securely computing any functionality in the broadcast model of communication.MPC protocols are traditionally designed in the simultaneous broadcast model, where each round consists of every party broadcasting a message to the other parties. We show that this method of communication is sub-optimal; specifically, by eliminating simultaneity, it is, in fact, possible to reduce the broadcast message complexity of MPC.More specifically, we establish tight lower and upper bounds on the broadcast message complexity of n-party MPC for every $$t<n$$ corruption threshold, both in the plain model as well as common setup models. For example, our results show that the optimal broadcast message complexity of semi-honest MPC can be much lower than 2n, but necessarily requires at least three rounds of communication. We also extend our results to the malicious setting in setup models.

2018

CRYPTO

Round-Optimal Secure Multiparty Computation with Honest Majority
📺
Abstract

We study the exact round complexity of secure multiparty computation (MPC) in the honest majority setting. We construct several round-optimaln-party protocols, tolerating any $$t<\frac{n}{2}$$ corruptions.
1.Security with abort: We give the first construction of two round MPC for general functions that achieves security with abort against malicious adversaries in the plain model. The security of our protocol only relies on one-way functions.2.Guaranteed output delivery: We also construct protocols that achieve security with guaranteed output delivery: (i) Against fail-stop adversaries, we construct two round MPC either in the (bare) public-key infrastructure model with no additional assumptions, or in the plain model assuming two-round semi-honest oblivious transfer. In three rounds, however, we can achieve security assuming only one-way functions. (ii) Against malicious adversaries, we construct three round MPC in the plain model, assuming public-key encryption and Zaps.Previously, such protocols were only known based on specific learning assumptions and required the use of common reference strings.
All of our results are obtained via general compilers that may be of independent interest.

#### Program Committees

- TCC 2023

#### Coauthors

- Prabhanjan Ananth (3)
- Benny Applebaum (1)
- Gabrielle Beck (1)
- Elette Boyle (1)
- Arka Rai Choudhuri (4)
- Ran Cohen (1)
- Bernardo David (1)
- Giovanni Deligios (1)
- Harry Eldridge (1)
- Sanjam Garg (1)
- Matthew Green (3)
- Mathias Hall-Andersen (3)
- Aditya Hegde (1)
- Yuval Ishai (1)
- Abhishek Jain (8)
- Gabriel Kaptchuk (4)
- Anders Konring (1)
- Eyal Kushilevitz (1)
- Chen-Da Liu-Zhang (1)
- Varun Narayanan (1)
- Nicholas Spooner (1)
- Maximilian Zinkus (1)