International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Naomi Sirkin


Parallelizable Delegation from LWE
Cody Freitag Rafael Pass Naomi Sirkin
We present the first non-interactive delegation scheme for P with time-tight parallel prover efficiency based on standard hardness assumptions. More precisely, in a time-tight delegation scheme—which we refer to as a SPARG (succinct parallelizable argument)—the prover’s parallel running time is t + polylog(t), while using only polylog(t) processors and where t is the length of the computation. (In other words, the proof is computed essentially in parallel with the computation, with only some minimal additive overhead in terms of time). Our main results show the existence of a publicly-verifiable, non-interactive, SPARG for P assuming polynomial hardness of LWE. Our SPARG construction relies on the elegant recent delegation construction of Choudhuri, Jain, and Jin (FOCS’21) and combines it with techniques from Ephraim et al (EuroCrypt’20). We next demonstrate how to make our SPARG time-independent—where the prover and verifier do not need to known the running-time t in advance; as far as we know, this yields the first construction of a time-tight delegation scheme with time-independence based on any hardness assumption. We finally present applications of SPARGs to the constructions of VDFs (Boneh et al, Crypto’18), resulting in the first VDF construction from standard polynomial hardness assumptions (namely LWE and the minimal assumption of a sequentially hard function).
On the Complexity of Compressing Obfuscation
Indistinguishability obfuscation has become one of the most exciting cryptographic primitives due to its far-reaching applications in cryptography and other fields. However, to date, obtaining a plausibly secure construction has been an illusive task, thus motivating the study of seemingly weaker primitives that imply it, with the possibility that they will be easier to construct. In this work, we provide a systematic study of compressing obfuscation, one of the most natural and simple to describe primitives that is known to imply indistinguishability obfuscation when combined with other standard assumptions. A compressing obfuscator is roughly an indistinguishability obfuscator that outputs just a slightly compressed encoding of the truth table. This generalizes notions introduced by Lin et al. (Functional signatures and pseudorandom functions, PKC, 2016) and Bitansky et al. (From Cryptomania to Obfustopia through secret-key functional encryption, TCC, 2016) by allowing for a broader regime of parameters. We view compressing obfuscation as an independent cryptographic primitive and show various positive and negative results concerning its power and plausibility of existence, demonstrating significant differences from full-fledged indistinguishability obfuscation. First, we show that as a cryptographic building block, compressing obfuscation is weak. In particular, when combined with one-way functions, it cannot be used (in a black-box way) to achieve public-key encryption, even under (sub-)exponential security assumptions. This is in sharp contrast to indistinguishability obfuscation, which together with one-way functions implies almost all cryptographic primitives. Second, we show that to construct compressing obfuscation with perfect correctness, one only needs to assume its existence with a very weak correctness guarantee and polynomial hardness. Namely, we show a correctness amplification transformation with optimal parameters that relies only on polynomial hardness assumptions. This implies a universal construction assuming only polynomially secure compressing obfuscation with approximate correctness. In the context of indistinguishability obfuscation, we know how to achieve such a result only under sub-exponential security assumptions together with derandomization assumptions. Lastly, we characterize the existence of compressing obfuscation with statistical security. We show that in some range of parameters and for some classes of circuits such an obfuscator exists , whereas it is unlikely to exist with better parameters or for larger classes of circuits. These positive and negative results reveal a deep connection between compressing obfuscation and various concepts in complexity theory and learning theory.
Non-Malleable Time-Lock Puzzles and Applications 📺
Time-lock puzzles are a mechanism for sending messages "to the future", by allowing a sender to quickly generate a puzzle with an underlying message that remains hidden until a receiver spends a moderately large amount of time solving it. We introduce and construct a variant of a time-lock puzzle which is non-malleable, which roughly guarantees that it is impossible to "maul" a puzzle into one for a related message without solving it. Using non-malleable time-lock puzzles, we achieve the following applications: - The first fair non-interactive multi-party protocols for coin flipping and auctions in the plain model without setup. - Practically efficient fair multi-party protocols for coin flipping and auctions proven secure in the (auxiliary-input) random oracle model. As a key step towards proving the security of our protocols, we introduce the notion of functional non-malleability, which protects against tampering attacks that affect a specific function of the related messages. To support an unbounded number of participants in our protocols, our time-lock puzzles satisfy functional non-malleability in the fully concurrent setting. We additionally show that standard (non-functional) non-malleability is impossible to achieve in the concurrent setting (even in the random oracle model).

Program Committees

Crypto 2022