International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Joseph K. Liu


Loquat: A SNARK-Friendly Post-Quantum Signature based on the Legendre PRF with Applications in Ring and Aggregate Signatures
We design and implement a novel post-quantum signature scheme based on the Legendre PRF, named Loquat. Prior to this work, efficient approaches for constructing post-quantum signatures with comparable security assumptions mainly used the MPC-in-the-head paradigm or hash trees. Our method departs from these paradigms and, notably, is SNARK-friendly, a feature not commonly found in earlier designs. Loquat requires significantly fewer computational operations for verification than other symmetric-key-based post-quantum signature schemes that support stateless signing. Our Python implementation of Loquat demonstrate a signature size of 46KB, with a signing time of 5.04 seconds and a verification time of 0.21 seconds. Instantiating the random oracle with an algebraic hash function results in the R1CS constraints for signature verification being about 148K, 7 to 175 times smaller than those required for MPC-in-the-head-based signatures and 3 to 9 times less than those for SPHINCS+ [Bernstein et al. CCS’19]. We explore two applications of Loquat. First, we incorporate it into the ID-based ring signature scheme [Buser et al. ACNS’22], achieving a significant reduction in signature size from 1.9 MB to 0.9 MB with stateless signing and practical master key generation. Our second application presents a SNARK-based aggregate signature scheme. We use the implementations of Aurora [Ben-Sasson et al. EC’19] and Fractal [Chiesa et al. EC’20] to benchmark our aggregate signature’s performance. Our findings show that aggregating 32 Loquat signatures using Aurora results in a proving time of about 7 minutes, a verification time of 66 seconds, and an aggregate signature size of 197 KB. Furthermore, by leveraging the recursive proof composition feature of Fractal, we achieve an aggregate signature with a constant size of 145 KB, illustrating Loquat’s potential for scalability in cryptographic applications.
DualRing: Generic Construction of Ring Signatures with Efficient Instantiations 📺
We introduce a novel generic ring signature construction, called DualRing, which can be built from several canonical identification schemes (such as Schnorr identification). DualRing differs from the classical ring signatures by its formation of two rings: a ring of commitments and a ring of challenges. It has a structural difference from the common ring signature approaches based on accumulators or zero-knowledge proofs of the signer index. Comparatively, DualRing has a number of unique advantages. Considering the DL-based setting by using Schnorr identification scheme, our DualRing structure allows the signature size to be compressed into logarithmic size via an argument of knowledge system such as Bulletproofs. We further improve on the Bulletproofs argument system to eliminate about half of the computation while maintaining the same proof size. We call this Sum Argument and it can be of independent interest. This DL-based construction, named DualRing-EC, using Schnorr identification with Sum Argument has the shortest ring signature size in the literature without using trusted setup. Considering the lattice-based setting, we instantiate DualRing by a canonical identification based on M-LWE and M-SIS. In practice, we achieve the shortest lattice-based ring signature, named DualRing-LB, when the ring size is between 4 and 2000. DualRing-LB is also 5x faster in signing and verification than the fastest lattice-based scheme by Esgin et al. (CRYPTO'19).
Public-Key Puncturable Encryption: Modular and Compact Constructions 📺
We revisit the method of designing public-key puncturable encryption schemes and present a generic conversion by leveraging the techniques of distributed key-distribution and revocable encryption. In particular, we first introduce a refined version of identity-based revocable encryption, named key-homomorphic identity-based revocable key encapsulation mechanism with extended correctness . Then, we propose a generic construction of puncturable key encapsulation mechanism from the former by merging the idea of distributed key-distribution. Compared to the state-of-the-art, our generic construction supports unbounded number of punctures and multiple tags per message, thus achieving more fine-grained revocation of decryption capability. Further, it does not rely on random oracles , not suffer from non-negligible correctness error, and results in a variety of efficient schemes with distinct features. More precisely, we obtain the first scheme with very compact ciphertexts in the standard model, and the first scheme with support for both unbounded size of tags per ciphertext and unbounded punctures as well as constant-time puncture operation. Moreover, we get a comparable scheme proven secure under the standard DBDH assumption, which enjoys both faster encryption and decryption than previous works based on the same assumption, especially when the number of tags associated with the ciphertext is large.
Lattice-Based Zero-Knowledge Proofs: New Techniques for Shorter and Faster Constructions and Applications 📺
We devise new techniques for design and analysis of efficient lattice-based zero-knowledge proofs (ZKP). First, we introduce one-shot proof techniques for non-linear polynomial relations of degree $$k\ge 2$$, where the protocol achieves a negligible soundness error in a single execution, and thus performs significantly better in both computation and communication compared to prior protocols requiring multiple repetitions. Such proofs with degree $$k\ge 2$$ have been crucial ingredients for important privacy-preserving protocols in the discrete logarithm setting, such as Bulletproofs (IEEE S&P ’18) and arithmetic circuit arguments (EUROCRYPT ’16). In contrast, one-shot proofs in lattice-based cryptography have previously only been shown for the linear case ($$k=1$$) and a very specific quadratic case ($$k=2$$), which are obtained as a special case of our technique.Moreover, we introduce two speedup techniques for lattice-based ZKPs: a CRT-packing technique supporting “inter-slot” operations, and “NTT-friendly” tools that permit the use of fully-splitting rings. The former technique comes at almost no cost to the proof length, and the latter one barely increases it, which can be compensated for by tweaking the rejection sampling parameters while still having faster computation overall.To illustrate the utility of our techniques, we show how to use them to build efficient relaxed proofs for important relations, namely proof of commitment to bits, one-out-of-many proof, range proof and set membership proof. Despite their relaxed nature, we further show how our proof systems can be used as building blocks for advanced cryptographic tools such as ring signatures.Our ring signature achieves a dramatic improvement in length over all the existing proposals from lattices at the same security level. The computational evaluation also shows that our construction is highly likely to outperform all the relevant works in running times. Being efficient in both aspects, our ring signature is particularly suitable for both small-scale and large-scale applications such as cryptocurrencies and e-voting systems. No trusted setup is required for any of our proposals.