International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Shi-Feng Sun


Efficient KZG-based Univariate Sum-check and Lookup Argument
Yuncong Zhang Shi-Feng Sun Dawu Gu
We propose a novel KZG-based sum-check scheme, dubbed $\mathsf{Losum}$, with \emph{optimal} efficiency. Particularly, its proving cost is \emph{one} multi-scalar-multiplication of size $k$---the number of non-zero entries in the vector, its verification cost is \emph{one} pairing plus one group scalar multiplication, and the proof consists of only \emph{one} group element. Using $\mathsf{Losum}$ as a component, we then construct a new lookup argument, named $\mathsf{Locq}$, which enjoys a smaller proof size and a lower verification cost compared to the state of the arts $\mathsf{cq}$, $\mathsf{cq}$+ and $\mathsf{cq}$++. Specifically, the proving cost of $\mathsf{Locq}$ is comparable to $\mathsf{cq}$, keeping the advantage that the proving cost is independent of the table size after preprocessing. For verification, $\mathsf{Locq}$ costs four pairings, while $\mathsf{cq}$, $\mathsf{cq}$+ and $\mathsf{cq}$++ require five, five and six pairings, respectively. For proof size, a $\mathsf{Locq}$ proof consists of four $\mathbb{G}_1$ elements and one $\mathbb{G}_2$ element; when instantiated with the BLS12-381 curve, the proof size of $\mathsf{Locq}$ is $2304$ bits, while $\mathsf{cq}$, $\mathsf{cq}$+ and $\mathsf{cq}$++ have $3840$, $3328$ and $2944$ bits, respectively. Moreover, $\mathsf{Locq}$ is zero-knowledge as $\mathsf{cq}$+ and $\mathsf{cq}$++, whereas $\mathsf{cq}$ is not. $\mathsf{Locq}$ is more efficient even compared to the non-zero-knowledge (and more efficient) versions of $\mathsf{cq}$+ and $\mathsf{cq}$++.
Functional Encryption against Probabilistic Queries: Definition, Construction and Applications
Functional encryption (FE for short) can be used to calculate a function output of a message, without revealing other information about the message. There are mainly two types of security definitions for FE, exactly simulation-based security (SIM-security) and indistinguishability-based security (IND-security). The two types of security definitions both suffer from their own drawbacks: FE with SIM-security supporting all circuits cannot be constructed for unbounded number of ciphertext and/or key queries, while IND-security is sometimes not enough: there are examples where an FE scheme is IND-secure but not intuitively secure. In this paper, we present a new security definition which can avoid the drawbacks of both SIM-security and IND-security, called indistinguishability-based security against probabilistic queries (pIND-security for short), and we give an FE construction for all circuits which is secure for unbounded key/ciphertext queries under this new security definition. We prove that this new security definition is strictly between SIM-security and IND-security, and provide new applications for FE which were not known to be constructed from IND-secure or SIM-secure FE.
Polynomial IOPs for Memory Consistency Checks in Zero-Knowledge Virtual Machines
Zero-Knowledge Virtual Machines (ZKVMs) have gained traction in recent years due to their potential applications in a variety of areas, particularly blockchain ecosystems. Despite tremendous progress on ZKVMs in the industry, no formal definitions or security proofs have been established in the literature. Due to this lack of formalization, existing protocols exhibit significant discrepancies in terms of problem definitions and performance metrics, making it difficult to analyze and compare these advancements, or to trust the security of the increasingly complex ZKVM implementations. In this work, we focus on random-access memory, an influential and expensive component of ZKVMs. Specifically, we investigate the state-of-the-art protocols for validating the correct functioning of memory, which we refer to as the \emph{memory consistency checks}. Isolating these checks from the rest of the system allows us to formalize their definition and security notion. Furthermore, we summarize the state-of-the-art constructions using the Polynomial IOP model and formally prove their security. Observing that the bottleneck of existing designs lies in sorting the entire memory trace, we break away from this paradigm and propose a novel memory consistency check, dubbed $\mathsf{Permem}$. $\mathsf{Permem}$ bypasses this bottleneck by introducing a technique called the address cycle method, which requires fewer building blocks and---after instantiating the building blocks with state-of-the-art constructions---fewer online polynomial oracles and evaluation queries. In addition, we propose $\mathsf{gcq}$, a new construction for the lookup argument---a key building block of the memory consistency check, which costs fewer online polynomial oracles than the state-of-the-art construction $\mathsf{cq}$.
A Universally Composable Non-Interactive Aggregate Cash System 📺
Mimblewimble is a privacy-preserving cryptocurrency, providing the functionality of transaction aggregation. Once certain coins have been spent in Mimblewimble, they can be deleted from the UTXO set. This is desirable: now storage can be saved and computation cost can be reduced. Fuchsbauer et al. (EUROCRYPT 2019) abstracted Mimblewimble as an Aggregate Cash System (ACS) and provided security analysis via game-based definitions. In this paper, we revisit the ACS, and focus on {\em Non-interactive} ACS, denoted as NiACS. We for the first time propose a simulation-based security definition and formalize an ideal functionality for NiACS. Then, we construct a NiACS protocol in a hybrid model which can securely realize the ideal NiACS functionality in the Universal Composition (UC) framework. In addition, we propose a building block, which is a variant of the ElGamal encryption scheme that may be of independent interest. Finally, we show how to instantiate our protocol, and obtain the first NiACS system with UC security.
Measure-Rewind-Measure: Tighter Quantum Random Oracle Model Proofs for One-Way to Hiding and CCA Security 📺
We introduce a new technique called `Measure-Rewind-Measure' (MRM) to achieve tighter security proofs in the quantum random oracle model (QROM). We first apply our MRM technique to derive a new security proof for a variant of the `double-sided' quantum One-Way to Hiding Lemma (O2H) of Bindel et al. [TCC 2019] which, for the first time, avoids the square-root advantage loss in the security proof. In particular, it bypasses a previous `impossibility result' of Jiang, Zhang and Ma [IACR eprint 2019]. We then apply our new O2H Lemma to give a new tighter security proof for the Fujisaki-Okamoto transform for constructing a strong (INDCCA) Key Encapsulation Mechanism (KEM) from a weak (INDCPA) public-key encryption scheme satisfying a mild injectivity assumption.
Public-Key Puncturable Encryption: Modular and Compact Constructions 📺
We revisit the method of designing public-key puncturable encryption schemes and present a generic conversion by leveraging the techniques of distributed key-distribution and revocable encryption. In particular, we first introduce a refined version of identity-based revocable encryption, named key-homomorphic identity-based revocable key encapsulation mechanism with extended correctness . Then, we propose a generic construction of puncturable key encapsulation mechanism from the former by merging the idea of distributed key-distribution. Compared to the state-of-the-art, our generic construction supports unbounded number of punctures and multiple tags per message, thus achieving more fine-grained revocation of decryption capability. Further, it does not rely on random oracles , not suffer from non-negligible correctness error, and results in a variety of efficient schemes with distinct features. More precisely, we obtain the first scheme with very compact ciphertexts in the standard model, and the first scheme with support for both unbounded size of tags per ciphertext and unbounded punctures as well as constant-time puncture operation. Moreover, we get a comparable scheme proven secure under the standard DBDH assumption, which enjoys both faster encryption and decryption than previous works based on the same assumption, especially when the number of tags associated with the ciphertext is large.

Program Committees

Asiacrypt 2023