International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

CryptoDB

Jean-Philippe Aumasson

Publications

Year
Venue
Title
2014
EPRINT
2013
JOFC
Quark: A Lightweight Hash
The need for lightweight (that is, compact, low-power, low-energy) cryptographic hash functions has been repeatedly expressed by professionals, notably to implement cryptographic protocols in RFID technology. At the time of writing, however, no algorithm exists that provides satisfactory security and performance. The ongoing SHA-3 Competition will not help, as it concerns general-purpose designs and focuses on software performance. This paper thus proposes a novel design philosophy for lightweight hash functions, based on the sponge construction in order to minimize memory requirements. Inspired by the stream cipher Grain and by the block cipher KATAN (amongst the lightest secure ciphers), we present the hash function family Quark, composed of three instances: u-Quark, d-Quark, and s-Quark. As a sponge construction, Quark can be used for message authentication, stream encryption, or authenticated encryption. Our hardware evaluation shows that Quark compares well to previous tentative lightweight hash functions. For example, our lightest instance u-Quark conjecturally provides at least 64-bit security against all attacks (collisions, multicollisions, distinguishers, etc.), fits in 1379 gate-equivalents, and consumes on average 2.44 μW at 100 kHz in 0.18 μm ASIC. For 112-bit security, we propose s-Quark, which can be implemented with 2296 gate-equivalents with a power consumption of 4.35 μW.
2010
EPRINT
Differential and invertibility properties of BLAKE (full version)
BLAKE is a hash function selected by NIST as one of the 14 second round candidates for the SHA-3 Competition. In this paper, we follow a bottom-up approach to exhibit properties of BLAKE and of its building blocks: based on differential properties of the internal function G, we show that a round of BLAKE is a permutation on the message space, and present an efficient inversion algorithm. For 1.5 rounds we present an algorithm that finds preimages faster than in previous attacks. Discovered properties lead us to describe large classes of impossible differentials for two rounds of BLAKE’s internal permutation, and particular impossible differentials for five and six rounds, respectively for BLAKE- 32 and BLAKE-64. Then, using a linear and rotation-free model, we describe near-collisions for four rounds of the compression function. Finally, we discuss the problem of establishing upper bounds on the probability of differential characteristics for BLAKE.
2010
EPRINT
Distinguishers for the Compression Function and Output Transformation of Hamsi-256
Hamsi is one of 14 remaining candidates in NIST's Hash Competition for the future hash standard SHA-3. Until now, little analysis has been published on its resistance to differential cryptanalysis, the main technique used to attack hash functions. We present a study of Hamsi's resistance to differential and higher-order differential cryptanalysis, with focus on the 256-bit version of Hamsi. Our main results are efficient distinguishers and near-collisions for its full (3-round) compression function, and distinguishers for its full (6-round) finalization function, indicating that Hamsi's building blocks do not behave ideally.
2010
CHES
2010
FSE
2010
FSE
2009
ASIACRYPT
2009
FSE
2009
FSE
2008
FSE
2008
FSE
2008
EPRINT
Preimage Attacks on 3-Pass HAVAL and Step-Reduced MD5
Jean-Philippe Aumasson Willi Meier Florian Mendel
This paper presents preimage attacks for the hash functions 3-pass HAVAL and step-reduced MD5. Introduced in 1992 and 1991 respectively, these functions underwent severe collision attacks, but no preimage attack. We describe two preimage attacks on the compression function of 3-pass HAVAL. The attacks have a complexity of about $2^{224}$ compression function evaluations instead of $2^{256}$. Furthermore, we present several preimage attacks on the MD5 compression function that invert up to 47 (out of 64) steps within $2^{96}$ trials instead of $2^{128}$. Though our attacks are not practical, they show that the security margin of 3-pass HAVAL and step-reduced MD5 with respect to preimage attacks is not as high as expected.
2008
EPRINT
Inside the Hypercube
Bernstein's CubeHash is a hash function family that includes four functions submitted to the NIST Hash Competition. A CubeHash function is parametrized by a number of rounds r, a block byte size b, and a digest bit length h (the compression function makes r rounds, while the finalization function makes 10r rounds). The 1024-bit internal state of CubeHash is represented as a five-dimensional hypercube. The submissions to NIST recommends r=8, b=1, and h in {224,256,384,512}. This paper presents the first external analysis of CubeHash, with: improved standard generic attacks for collisions and preimages; a multicollision attack that exploits fixed points; a study of the round function symmetries; a preimage attack that exploits these symmetries; a practical collision attack on a weakened version of CubeHash; a study of fixed points and an example of nontrivial fixed point; high-probability truncated differentials over 10 rounds. Since the first publication of these results, several collision attacks for reduced versions of CubeHash were published by Dai, Peyrin, et al. Our results are more general, since they apply to any choice of the parameters, and show intrinsic properties of the CubeHash design, rather than attacks on specific versions.
2007
EPRINT
New Features of Latin Dances: Analysis of Salsa, ChaCha, and Rumba
The stream cipher Salsa20 was introduced by Bernstein in 2005 as a candidate in the eSTREAM project, accompanied by the reduced versions Salsa20/8 and Salsa20/12. ChaCha is a variant of Salsa20 aiming at bringing better diffusion for similar performance. Variants of Salsa20 with up to 7 rounds (instead of 20) have been broken by differential cryptanalysis, while ChaCha has not been analyzed yet. In this paper, we introduce a novel method for differential cryptanalysis of Salsa20 and ChaCha, inspired by correlation attacks and related to the notion of neutral bits. This is the first application of neutral bits in stream cipher cryptanalysis, and it allows us to present the first break of Salsa20/8, to bring faster attacks on the 7-round variant, and to break 6- and 7-round ChaCha. In a second part, we analyze the compression function Rumba, constructed as the XOR of four Salsa20 instances, and returning a 512-bit output. We find collision and preimage attacks for two simplified variants, then we discuss differential attacks on the original version, and exploit a high-probability differential to reduce complexity of collision search from 2^(256) to 2^(79) for 3-round Rumba. We give examples of collisions over three rounds for a version without feedforward, and near-collisions of weight 16 for three rounds of the original compression function, and of weight 129 for four rounds.
2006
EPRINT
On the cost of cryptanalytic attacks
Jean-Philippe Aumasson
This note discusses the complexity evaluation of cryptanalytic attacks, with the example of exhaustive key search, illustrated with several ciphers from the eSTREAM project. A measure is proposed to evaluate the effective computational cost of cryptanalytic algorithms, based on the observation that the standard one is not precise enough.
2006
EPRINT
On the pseudo-random generator ISAAC
Jean-Philippe Aumasson
This paper presents some properties of he deterministic random bit generator ISAAC (FSE'96), contradicting several statements of its introducing article. In particular, it characterizes huge subsets of internal states which induce a strongly non-uniform distribution in the $8\,192$ first bits produced. A previous attack on ISAAC presented at Asiacrypt'06 by Paul and Preneel is demonstrated to be non relevant, since relies on an erroneous algorithm. Finally, a modification of the algorithm is proposed to fix the weaknesses discovered.

Program Committees

FSE 2017
FSE 2013