INT-RUP Secure Lightweight Parallel AE Modes 📺
Owing to the growing demand for lightweight cryptographic solutions, NIST has initiated a standardization process for lightweight cryptographic algorithms. Specific to authenticated encryption (AE), the NIST draft demands that the scheme should have one primary member that has key length of 128 bits, and it should be secure for at least 250 − 1 byte queries and 2112 computations. Popular (lightweight) modes, such as OCB, OTR, CLOC, SILC, JAMBU, COFB, SAEB, Beetle, SUNDAE etc., require at least 128-bit primitives to meet the NIST criteria, as all of them are just birthday bound secure. Furthermore, most of them are sequential, and they either use a two pass mode or they do not offer any security when the adversary has access to unverified plaintext (RUP model). In this paper, we propose two new designs for lightweight AE modes, called LOCUS and LOTUS, structurally similar to OCB and OTR, respectively. These modes achieve notably higher AE security bounds with lighter primitives (only a 64-bit tweakable block cipher). Especially, they satisfy the NIST requirements: secure as long as the data complexity is less than 264 bytes and time complexity is less than 2128, even when instantiated with a primitive with 64-bit block and 128-bit key. Both these modes are fully parallelizable and provide full integrity security under the RUP model. We use TweGIFT-64[4,16,16,4] (also referred as TweGIFT-64), a tweakable variant of the GIFT block cipher, to instantiate our AE modes. TweGIFT-64-LOCUS and TweGIFT-64-LOTUS are significantly light in hardware implementation. To justify, we provide our FPGA based implementation results, which demonstrate that TweGIFT-64-LOCUS consumes only 257 slices and 690 LUTs, while TweGIFT-64-LOTUS consumes only 255 slices and 664 LUTs.
ESTATE: A Lightweight and Low Energy Authenticated Encryption Mode 📺
NIST has recently initiated a standardization project for efficient lightweight authenticated encryption schemes. SUNDAE, a candidate in this project, achieves optimal state size which results in low circuit overhead on top of the underlying block cipher. In addition, SUNDAE provides security in nonce-misuse scenario as well. However, in addition to the block cipher circuit, SUNDAE also requires some additional circuitry for multiplication by a primitive element. Further, it requires an additional block cipher invocation to create the starting state. In this paper, we propose a new lightweight and low energy authenticated encryption family, called ESTATE, that significantly improves the design of SUNDAE in terms of implementation costs (both hardware area and energy) and efficient processing of short messages. In particular, ESTATE does not require an additional multiplication circuit, and it reduces the number of block cipher calls by one. Moreover, it provides integrity security even under the release of unverified plaintext (or RUP) model. ESTATE is based on short-tweak tweakable block ciphers (or tBC, small ’t’ denotes short tweaks) and we instantiate it with two recently designed tBCs: TweAES and TweGIFT. We also propose a low latency variant of ESTATE, called sESTATE, that uses a round-reduced (6 rounds) variant of TweAES called TweAES-6. We provide comprehensive FPGA based hardware implementation for all the three instances. The implementation results depict that ESTATE_TweGIFT-128 (681 LUTs, 263 slices) consumes much lesser area as compared to SUNDAE_GIFT-128 (931 LUTs, 310 slices). When we moved to the AES variants, along with the area-efficiency (ESTATE_TweAES consumes 1901 LUTs, 602 slices while SUNDAE_AES-128 needs 1922 LUTs, 614 slices), we also achieve higher throughput for short messages (For 16-byte message, a throughput of 1251.10 and 945.36 Mbps for ESTATE_TweAES and SUNDAE_AES-128 respectively).
Double Ciphertext Mode : A Proposal for Secure Backup
Security of data stored in bulk storage devices like the hard disk has gained a lot of importance in the current days. Among the variety of paradigms which are available for disk encryption, low level disk encryption is well accepted because of the high security guarantees it provides. In this paper we view the problem of disk encryption from a different direction. We explore the possibility of how one can maintain secure backups of the data, such that loss of a physical device will mean neither loss of the data nor the fact that the data gets revealed to the adversary. We propose an efficient solution to this problem through a new cryptographic scheme which we call as the double ciphertext mode (DCM). In this paper we describe the syntax of DCM, define security for it and give some efficient constructions. Moreover we argue regarding the suitability of DCM for the secure backup application and also explore other application areas where a DCM can be useful.
Reconfigurable Hardware Implementations of Tweakable Enciphering Schemes
Tweakable enciphering schemes are length preserving block cipher modes of operation that provide a strong pseudo-random permutation. It has been suggested that these schemes can be used as the main building blocks for achieving in-place disk encryption. In the past few years there has been an intense research activity towards constructing secure and efficient tweakable enciphering schemes. But, actual experimental performance data of these newly proposed schemes are yet to be reported. Accordingly, in this paper we present optimized FPGA implementations of five tweakable enciphering schemes, namely, HCH, HCTR, XCB, EME and TET, using a 128-bit AES core as the underlying block cipher. We report performance timings of these modes when using both, pipelined and sequential AES structures. The universal polynomial hash function included in the specification of HCH, HCHfp (a variant of HCH), HCTR, XCB and TET, was implemented using a Karatsuba-Ofman multiplier as the main building block. We provide detailed analyses of each of the schemes and their experimental performances achieved in various scenarios. Our experiments show that a sequential AES core is not an attractive option for the design of these modes as it leads to rather poor throughputs. In contrast, by using an encryption/decryption pipelined AES core we get a throughput of 3.67 Gbps for HCTR and by using a encryption only pipeline AES core we get a throughput of 5.71 Gbps for EME. The performance results reported in this paper provide experimental evidence that hardware implementations of tweakable enciphering schemes can actually match and even outperform the data rates achieved by state-of-the-technology disk controllers, thus showing that they might be used for achieving provably secure in-place hard disk encryption.