## CryptoDB

### Charalampos Papamanthou

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2019

CRYPTO

Libra: Succinct Zero-Knowledge Proofs with Optimal Prover Computation
📺
Abstract

We present Libra, the first zero-knowledge proof system that has both optimal prover time and succinct proof size/verification time. In particular, if C is the size of the circuit being proved (i) the prover time is O(C) irrespective of the circuit type; (ii) the proof size and verification time are both $$O(d\log C)$$ for d-depth log-space uniform circuits (such as RAM programs). In addition Libra features an one-time trusted setup that depends only on the size of the input to the circuit and not on the circuit logic. Underlying Libra is a new linear-time algorithm for the prover of the interactive proof protocol by Goldwasser, Kalai and Rothblum (also known as GKR protocol), as well as an efficient approach to turn the GKR protocol to zero-knowledge using small masking polynomials. Not only does Libra have excellent asymptotics, but it is also efficient in practice. For example, our implementation shows that it takes 200 s to generate a proof for constructing a SHA2-based Merkle tree root on 256 leaves, outperforming all existing zero-knowledge proof systems. Proof size and verification time of Libra are also competitive.

2019

JOFC

Oblivious Network RAM and Leveraging Parallelism to Achieve Obliviousness
Abstract

Oblivious RAM (ORAM) is a cryptographic primitive that allows a trusted CPU to securely access untrusted memory, such that the access patterns reveal nothing about sensitive data. ORAM is known to have broad applications in secure processor design and secure multiparty computation for big data. Unfortunately, due to a logarithmic lower bound by Goldreich and Ostrovsky (J ACM 43(3):431–473, 1996 ), ORAM is bound to incur a moderate cost in practice. In particular, with the latest developments in ORAM constructions, we are quickly approaching this limit, and the room for performance improvement is small. In this paper, we consider new models of computation in which the cost of obliviousness can be fundamentally reduced in comparison with the standard ORAM model. We propose the oblivious network RAM model of computation, where a CPU communicates with multiple memory banks, such that the adversary observes only which bank the CPU is communicating with, but not the address offset within each memory bank. In other words, obliviousness within each bank comes for free—either because the architecture prevents a malicious party from observing the address accessed within a bank, or because another solution is used to obfuscate memory accesses within each bank—and hence we only need to obfuscate communication patterns between the CPU and the memory banks. We present new constructions for obliviously simulating general or parallel programs in the network RAM model. We describe applications of our new model in distributed storage applications with a network adversary.

2018

CRYPTO

Searchable Encryption with Optimal Locality: Achieving Sublogarithmic Read Efficiency
📺
Abstract

We propose the first linear-space searchable encryption scheme with constant locality and sublogarithmic read efficiency, strictly improving the previously best known read efficiency bound (Asharov et al., STOC 2016) from $$\varTheta (\log N \log \log N)$$Θ(logNloglogN) to $$O(\log ^{\gamma } N)$$O(logγN) where $$\gamma =\frac{2}{3}+\delta $$γ=23+δ for any fixed $$\delta >0$$δ>0 and where N is the number of keyword-document pairs. Our scheme employs four different allocation algorithms for storing the keyword lists, depending on the size of the list considered each time. For our construction we develop (i) new probability bounds for the offline two-choice allocation problem; (ii) and a new I/O-efficient oblivious RAM with $$\tilde{O}(n^{1/3})$$O~(n1/3) bandwidth overhead and zero failure probability, both of which can be of independent interest.

2016

CRYPTO

2010

EPRINT

Update-Optimal Authenticated Structures Based on Lattices
Abstract

We study the problem of authenticating a \emph{dynamic table} with
$n$ entries in the authenticated data structures model, which is
related to memory checking. We present the first dynamic authenticated
table that is \emph{update-optimal}, using a \emph{lattice-based} construction. In particular, the update time is
$O(1)$, improving in this way the ``a priori'' $O(\log n)$ update bounds for previous constructions, such as the Merkle
tree. Moreover, the space used by our data structure is $O(n)$ and
logarithmic bounds hold for the other complexity measures, such as
\emph{proof size}. To achieve this result, we exploit the
\emph{linearity} of lattice-based hash functions and show how the
security of lattice-based digests can be guaranteed under updates.
This is the first construction achieving constant update bounds
without causing other time complexities to increase beyond
logarithmic. All previous solutions enjoying constant update
complexity have $\Omega(n^\epsilon)$ proof or query bounds. As an
application of our lattice-based authenticated table, we provide
the first construction of an authenticated Bloom filter, an
update-intensive data structure that falls into our model.

2010

EPRINT

Optimal Authentication of Operations on Dynamic Sets
Abstract

We study the problem of authenticating outsourced set operations performed by an untrusted server over a dynamic collection of sets that are owned by a trusted source. We present efficient methods for authenticating fundamental set operations, such as \emph{union} and \emph{intersection} so that the client can verify the correctness of the received answer. Based on a novel extension of the security properties of \emph{bilinear-map accumulators}, our authentication scheme is the first to achieve \emph{optimality} in several critical performance measures: (1) \emph{the verification overhead at the client is optimal}, that is, the client can verify an answer in time proportional to the size of the query parameters and answer; (2) \emph{the update overhead at the source is constant}; (3) \emph{the bandwidth consumption is optimal}, namely constant between the source and the server and operation-sensitive between the client and the server (i.e., proportional only to the size of the query parameters and the answer); and (4) \emph{the storage usage is optimal}, namely constant at the client and linear at the source and the server. Updates and queries are also efficient at the server. In contrast, existing schemes entail high bandwidth and verification costs or high storage usage since they recompute the query over authentic data or precompute answers to all possible queries.
We also show applications of our techniques to the authentication of \emph{keyword searches} on outsourced document collections (e.g., inverted-index queries) and of queries in outsourced \emph{databases} (e.g., equi-join queries). Since set intersection is heavily used in these applications, we obtain new authentication schemes that compare favorably to existing approaches.

2008

EPRINT

Dynamic Provable Data Possession
Abstract

As online storage-outsourcing services (e.g., Amazon's S3) and resource-sharing networks (e.g., peer-to-peer and grid networks) became popular, the problem of efficiently proving the integrity of data stored at untrusted servers has received increased attention. Ateniese et al. \cite{pdp} formalized this problem with a model called provable data possession (PDP). In this model, data is preprocessed by the client and then sent to an untrusted server for storage. The client can then challenge the server to prove that the data has not been tampered with or deleted (without sending the actual data).
However, their PDP scheme applies only to static (or append-only) files. In reality, many outsourced storage applications (including network file systems and outsourced databases) need to handle dynamic data. This paper presents a definitional framework and an efficient construction for dynamic provable data possession (DPDP), which extends the PDP model to support provable updates to stored data (modifications to a block or insertion/deletion of a block). To achieve efficient DPDP, we use a new version of authenticated dictionaries based on rank information. The price of dynamic updates is a performance change from $O(1)$ to $O(\log{n})$, for a file consisting of $n$ blocks, while maintaining the same probability of detection. Yet, our experiments show that this price is very low in practice, and hence our system is applicable to real scenarios. Our contributions can be summarized as defining the DPDP framework formally, and constructing the first fully dynamic PDP solution, which performs verification without downloading actual data and is very efficient. We also show how our DPDP scheme can be extended to construct complete file systems and version control systems (e.g., CVS) at untrusted servers, so that it can be used in complex outsourcing applications.

#### Program Committees

- PKC 2020
- Crypto 2019

#### Coauthors

- Dana Dachman-Soled (3)
- Ioannis Demertzis (1)
- Chris Erway (1)
- Sanjam Garg (2)
- Ahmed E. Kosba (2)
- Alptekin Küpçü (1)
- Chang Liu (3)
- Andrew Miller (1)
- Payman Mohassel (2)
- Dimitrios Papadopoulos (2)
- Mahmoud F. Sayed (1)
- Elaine Shi (7)
- Dawn Song (1)
- Roberto Tamassia (6)
- Nikos Triandopoulos (3)
- Uzi Vishkin (3)
- Zikai Wen (1)
- Tiacheng Xie (1)
- Ke Yi (1)
- Jiaheng Zhang (1)
- Yupeng Zhang (1)