## CryptoDB

### Olivier Sanders

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2023

PKC

Pattern Matching in Encrypted Stream from Inner Product Encryption
Abstract

Functional encryption features secret keys, each associated with a key function f, which allow to directly recover f(x) from an encryption of x, without learning anything more about x. This property is particularly useful when delegating data processing to a third party as it allows the latter to perfom its task while ensuring minimum data leakage. However, this generic term conceals a great diversity in the cryptographic constructions that strongly differ according to the functions f they support.
A recent series of works has focused on the ability to search a pattern within a data stream, which can be expressed as a function f. One of the conclusions of these works was that this function f was not supported by the current state-of-the-art, which incited their authors to propose a new primitive called Stream Encryption supporting Pattern Matching (SEPM). Some concrete constructions were proposed but with some limitations such as selective security or reliance on non-standard assumptions.
In this paper, we revisit the relations between this primitive and two major subclasses of functional encryption, namely Hidden Vector Encryption (HVE) and Inner Product Encryption (IPE). We indeed first exhibit a generic transformation from HVE to SEPM, which immediately yields new efficient SEPM constructions with better features than existing ones. We then revisit the relations between HVE and IPE and show that we can actually do better than the transformation proposed by Katz, Sahai and Waters in their seminal paper on predicate encryption. This allows to fully leverage the vast state-of-the-art on IPE which contains adaptively secure constructions proven under standard assumptions. This results in countless new SEPM constructions, with all the features one can wish for. Beyond that, we believe that our work sheds a new light on the relations between IPE schemes and HVE schemes and in particular shows that some of the former are more suitable to construct the latter.

2023

CRYPTO

Lattice Signature with Efficient Protocols, Application to Anonymous Credentials
Abstract

Digital signature is an essential primitive in cryptography, which can be used as the digital analogue of handwritten signatures but also as a building block for more complex systems. In the latter case, signatures with specific features are needed, so as to smoothly interact with the other components of the systems, such as zero-knowledge proofs. This has given rise to so-called signatures with efficient protocols, a versatile tool that has been used in countless applications. Designing such signatures is however quite difficult, in particular if one wishes to withstand quantum computing. We are indeed aware of only one post-quantum construction, proposed by Libert et al. at Asiacrypt'16, yielding very large signatures and proofs.
In this paper, we propose a new construction that can be instantiated in both standard lattices and structured ones, resulting in each case in dramatic performance improvements. In particular, the size of a proof of message-signature possession, which is one of the main metrics for such schemes, can be brought down to less than 650 KB. As our construction retains all the features expected from signatures with efficient protocols, it can be used as a drop-in replacement in all systems using them, which mechanically improves their own performance, and has thus a direct impact on many applications. It can also be used to easily design new privacy-preserving mechanisms. As an example, we provide the first lattice-based anonymous credentials system.

2021

PKC

Improving Revocation for Group Signature with Redactable Signature
📺
Abstract

Group signature is a major cryptographic tool allowing anonymous access to a service. However, in practice, access to a service is usually granted for some periods of time, which implies that the signing rights must be deactivated the rest of the time. This requirement thus calls for complex forms of revocation, reminiscent of the concept of time-bound keys. However, schemes implementing this concept are rare and only allow revocation with limited granularity. That is, signing keys are associated with an expiry time and become definitively useless once the latter has passed.
In this paper, we revisit the notion of group signatures with time-bound keys with several contributions. Firstly, we extend this notion to allow high granularity revocation: a member's signing key can in particular be deactivated at some moments and then be automatically reinstated. Secondly, we show that this complex property is actually simple to achieve using redactable signature. In particular, we consider in this context a recent redactable signature scheme from PKC 20 that we improve by dramatically reducing the size of the public key. The resulting construction is of independent interest.

2021

ASIACRYPT

Public Key Encryption with Flexible Pattern Matching
📺
Abstract

Many interesting applications of pattern matching (e.g. deep-packet inspection or medical data analysis) target very sensitive data. In particular, spotting illegal behaviour in internet traffic conflicts with legitimate privacy requirements, which usually forces users (e.g. children, employees) to blindly trust an entity that fully decrypts their traffic in the name of security.
The compromise between traffic analysis and privacy can be achieved through searchable encryption. However, as the traffic data is a stream and as the patterns to search are bound to evolve over time (e.g. new virus signatures), these applications require a kind of searchable encryption that provides more flexibility than the classical schemes. We indeed need to be able to search for patterns of variable sizes in an arbitrary long stream that has potentially been encrypted prior to pattern identification. To stress these specificities, we call such a scheme a stream encryption supporting pattern matching.
Recent papers use bilinear groups to provide public key constructions
supporting these features. These solutions are lighter than more generic ones (e.g. fully homomorphic encryption) while retaining the adequate expressivity to support pattern matching without harming privacy more than needed. However, all existing solutions in this family have weaknesses with respect to efficiency and security that need to be addressed. Regarding efficiency, their public key has a size linear in the size of the alphabet, which can be quite large, in particular for applications that naturally process data as bytestrings. Regarding security, they all rely on a very strong computational assumption that is both interactive and specially tailored for this kind of scheme.
In this paper, we tackle these problems by providing two new constructions using bilinear groups to support pattern matching on encrypted streams. Our first construction shares the same strong
assumption but dramatically reduces the size of the public key by removing the dependency on the size of the alphabet, while nearly halving the size of the ciphertext. On a typical application with large patterns, our public key is two order of magnitude smaller that the one of previous schemes, which demonstrates the practicality of our approach. Our second construction manages to retain most of the good features of the first one while exclusively relying on a simple (static) variant of DDH, which solves the security problem of previous works.

2020

PKC

Efficient Redactable Signature and Application to Anonymous Credentials
📺
Abstract

Let us assume that Alice has received a constant-size signature on a set of messages $${m_i}_{i=1}^n$$ from some organization. Depending on the situation, Alice might need to disclose, prove relations about or hide some of these messages. Ideally, the complexity of the corresponding protocols should not depend on the hidden messages. In particular, if Alice wants to disclose only k messages, then the authenticity of the latter should be verifiable in at most O ( k ) operations. Many solutions were proposed over the past decades, but they only provide a partial answer to this problem. In particular, we note that they suffer either from the need to prove knowledge of the hidden elements or from the inability to prove that the latter satisfy some relations. In this paper, we propose a very efficient constant-size redactable signature scheme that addresses all the problems above. Signatures can indeed be redacted to remain valid only on a subset of k messages included in $${m_i}_{i=1}^n$$ . The resulting redacted signature consists of 4 elements and can be verified with essentially k exponentiations. Different shows of the same signature can moreover be made unlinkable leading to a very efficient anonymous credentials system.

2020

ASIACRYPT

Lattice-Based E-Cash, Revisited
📺
Abstract

Electronic cash (e-cash) was introduced 40 years ago as the digital analogue of traditional cash. It allows users to withdraw electronic coins that can be spent anonymously with merchants. As advocated by Camenisch et al. (Eurocrypt 2005), it should be possible to store the withdrawn coins compactly (i.e., with logarithmic cost in the total number of coins), which has led to the notion of compact e-cash. Many solutions were proposed for this problem but the security proofs of most of them were invalidated by a very recent paper by Bourse et al. (Asiacrypt 2019). The same paper describes a generic way of fixing existing constructions/proofs but concrete instantiations of this patch are currently unknown in some settings. In particular, compact e-cash is no longer known to exist under quantum-safe assumptions.
In this work, we resolve this problem by proposing the first secure compact e-cash system based on lattices following the result from Bourse et al. Contrarily to the latter work, our construction is not only generic, but we describe two concrete instantiations. We depart from previous frameworks of e-cash systems by leveraging lossy trapdoor functions to construct our coins. The indistinguishability of lossy and injective keys allows us to avoid the very strong requirements on the involved pseudo-random functions that were necessary to instantiate the generic patch proposed by Bourse et al.

2019

ASIACRYPT

Divisible E-Cash from Constrained Pseudo-Random Functions
Abstract

Electronic cash (e-cash) is the digital analogue of regular cash which aims at preserving users’ privacy. Following Chaum’s seminal work, several new features were proposed for e-cash to address the practical issues of the original primitive. Among them, divisibility has proved very useful to enable efficient storage and spendings. Unfortunately, it is also very difficult to achieve and, to date, quite a few constructions exist, all of them relying on complex mechanisms that can only be instantiated in one specific setting. In addition security models are incomplete and proofs sometimes hand-wavy.In this work, we first provide a complete security model for divisible e-cash, and we study the links with constrained pseudo-random functions (PRFs), a primitive recently formalized by Boneh and Waters. We exhibit two frameworks of divisible e-cash systems from constrained PRFs achieving some specific properties: either key homomorphism or delegability. We then formally prove these frameworks, and address two main issues in previous constructions: two essential security notions were either not considered at all or not fully proven. Indeed, we introduce the notion of clearing, which should guarantee that only the recipient of a transaction should be able to do the deposit, and we show the exculpability, that should prevent an honest user to be falsely accused, was wrong in most proofs of the previous constructions. Some can easily be repaired, but this is not the case for most complex settings such as constructions in the standard model. Consequently, we provide the first construction secure in the standard model, as a direct instantiation of our framework.

2018

ASIACRYPT

Pattern Matching on Encrypted Streams
Abstract

Pattern matching is essential in applications such as deep-packet inspection (DPI), searching on genomic data, or analyzing medical data. A simple task to do on plaintext data, pattern matching is much harder to do when the privacy of the data must be preserved. Existent solutions involve searchable encryption mechanisms with at least one of these three drawbacks: requiring an exhaustive (and static) list of keywords to be prepared before the data is encrypted (like in symmetric searchable encryption); requiring tokenization, i.e., breaking up the data to search into substrings and encrypting them separately (e.g., like BlindBox); relying on symmetric-key cryptography, thus implying a token-regeneration step for each encrypted-data source (e.g., user). Such approaches are ill-suited for pattern-matching with evolving patterns (e.g., updating virus signatures), variable searchword lengths, or when a single entity must filter ciphertexts from multiple parties.In this work, we introduce Searchable Encryption with Shiftable Trapdoors (SEST): a new primitive that allows for pattern matching with universal tokens (usable by all entities), in which keywords of arbitrary lengths can be matched to arbitrary ciphertexts. Our solution uses public-key encryption and bilinear pairings.In addition, very minor modifications to our solution enable it to take into account regular expressions, such as fully- or partly-unknown characters in a keyword (wildcards and interval/subset searches). Our trapdoor size is at most linear in the keyword length (and independent of the plaintext size), and we prove that the leakage to the searcher is only the trivial one: since the searcher learns whether the pattern occurs and where, it can distinguish based on different search results of a single trapdoor on two different plaintexts.To better show the usability of our scheme, we implemented it to run DPI on all the SNORT rules. We show that even for very large plaintexts, our encryption algorithm scales well. The pattern-matching algorithm is slower, but extremely parallelizable, and it can thus be run even on very large data. Although our proofs use a (marginally) interactive assumption, we argue that this is a relatively small price to pay for the flexibility and privacy that we are able to attain.

#### Program Committees

- PKC 2021
- Asiacrypt 2021

#### Coauthors

- Raphael Bost (1)
- Florian Bourse (1)
- Elie Bouscatié (2)
- Sébastien Canard (1)
- Sébastien Canard (1)
- Guilhem Castagnos (2)
- Amit Deo (1)
- Nicolas Desmoulins (1)
- Pierre-Alain Fouque (1)
- Corentin Jeudy (1)
- Benoît Libert (1)
- Khoa Nguyen (1)
- Cristina Onete (1)
- David Pointcheval (4)
- Adeline Roux-Langlois (1)
- Jacques Traoré (2)