International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Min Zhang


Private Set Operations from Multi-Query Reverse Private Membership Test
Private set operations allow two parties to perform secure computation on their private sets, including intersection, union and functions of intersection/union. In this paper, we put forth a framework to perform private set operations. The technical core of our framework is the multi-query reverse private membership test (mqRPMT) protocol (Zhang et al., USENIX Security 2023). We present two constructions of mqRPMT from newly introduced cryptographic notions, one is based on commutative weak pseudorandom function (cwPRF), and the other is based on permuted oblivious pseudorandom function (pOPRF). Both cwPRF and pOPRF can be realized from the decisional Diffie-Hellman (DDH)-like assumptions in the random oracle model. We demonstrate the practicality of our framework with implementations. By plugging our cwPRF-based mqRPMT into the framework, we obtain various PSO protocols that are superior or competitive to the state-of-the-art protocols. For intersection functionality, our protocol is faster than the most efficient one for small sets. For cardinality functionality, our protocol achieves a $2.4-10.5\times$ speedup and a $10.9-14.8\times$ reduction in communication cost. For cardinality-with-sum functionality, our protocol achieves a $28.5-76.3\times$ speedup and $7.4\times$ reduction in communication cost. For union functionality, our protocol is the first one that achieves strictly linear complexity, and requires the lowest concrete computation and communication costs in all settings, achieving a $2.7-17\times$ speedup and about $2\times$ reduction in communication cost. Furthermore, our improvement on PSU also translates to related functionality, yielding the most efficient private-ID protocol to date.
Sigma Protocols from Verifiable Secret Sharing and Their Applications
Sigma protocols are one of the most common and efficient zero-knowledge proofs (ZKPs). Over the decades, a large number of Sigma protocols are proposed, yet few works pay attention to the common design principal. In this work, we propose a generic framework of Sigma protocols for algebraic statements from verifiable secret sharing (VSS) schemes. Our framework provides a general and unified approach to understanding Sigma protocols. It not only neatly explains the classic protocols such as Schnorr, Guillou–Quisquater and Okamoto protocols, but also leads to new Sigma protocols that were not previously known. Furthermore, we show an application of our framework in designing ZKPs for composite statements, which contain both algebraic and non-algebraic statements. We give a generic construction of non-interactive ZKPs for composite statements by combining Sigma protocols from VSS and ZKPs following MPC-in-the-head paradigm in a seamless way via a technique of \textit{witness sharing reusing}. Our construction has advantages of requiring no “glue” proofs for combining algebraic and non-algebraic statements. By instantiating our construction using Ligero++ (Bhadauria et al., CCS 2020) and designing an associated Sigma protocol from VSS, we obtain a concrete ZKP for composite statements which achieves a tradeoff between running time and proof size, thus resolving the open problem left by Backes et al. (PKC 2019).