International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Yao Sun


SuperBall: A New Approach for MILP Modelings of Boolean Functions
Ting Li Yao Sun
Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) solver has become one of the most powerful tools of searching for cryptographic characteristics. It has great significance to study the influencing factors of the efficiency of MILP models. For this goal, different types of MILP models should be constructed and carefully studied. As Boolean functions are the fundamental cryptographic components, in this paper, we study the descriptive models of Boolean functions. Here, a descriptive model of a Boolean function refers to a set of integer linear inequalities, where the set of the binary solutions to these inequalities is exactly the support of this Boolean function. Previously, it is hard to construct various types of descriptive models for study, one important reason is that only a few kinds of inequalities can be generated. On seeing this, a new approach, called SuperBall, is proposed to generate inequalities. The SuperBall approach is based on the method of undetermined coefficients, and it could generate almost all kinds of inequalities by appending appropriate constraints. Besides, the Sasaki-Todo Algorithm is also improved to construct the descriptive models from a set of candidate inequalities by considering both their sizes and strengths, while the strengths of descriptive models have not been considered in the previous works. As applications, we constructed several types of descriptive models for the Sboxes of Liliput, SKINNY-128, and AES. The experimental results first prove that the diversity of the inequalities generated by the SuperBall approach is good. More importantly, the results show that the strengths of descriptive model do affect the efficiencies, and although there is not a type of descriptive model having the best efficiency in all experiments, we did find a specific type of descriptive model which has the minimal size and relatively large strength, and the descriptive models of this type have better efficiencies in most of our experiments.
Automatic Search of Cubes for Attacking Stream Ciphers 📺
Yao Sun
Cube attack was proposed by Dinur and Shamir, and it has become an important tool for analyzing stream ciphers. As the problem that how to recover the superpolys accurately was resolved by Hao et al. in EUROCRYPT 2020, another important problem is how to find “good” superpolys, which is equivalent to finding “good” cubes. However, there are two difficulties in finding “good” cubes. Firstly, the number of candidate cubes is enormous and most of the cubes are not “good”. Secondly, it is costly to evaluate whether a cube is “good”.In this paper, we present a new algorithm to search for a kind of “good” cubes, called valuable cubes. A cube is called valuable, if its superpoly has (at least) a balanced secret variable. A valuable cube is “good”, because its superpoly brings in 1 bit of information about the key. More importantly, the superpolys of valuable cubes could be used in both theoretical and practical analyses. To search for valuable cubes, instead of testing a set of cubes one by one, the new algorithm deals with the set of cubes together, such that the common computations can be done only once for all candidate cubes and duplicated computations are avoided. Besides, the new algorithm uses a heuristic method to reject useless cubes efficiently. This heuristic method is based on the divide-and-conquer strategy as well as an observation.For verifications of this new algorithm, we applied it to Trivium and Kreyvium, and obtained three improvements. Firstly, we found two valuable cubes for 843-round Trivium, such that we proposed, as far as we know, the first theoretical key-recovery attack against 843-round Trivium, while the previous highest round of Trivium that can be attacked was 842, given by Hao et al. in EUROCRYPT 2020. Secondly, by finding many small valuable cubes, we presented practical attacks against 806- and 808-round Trivium for the first time, while the previous highest round of Trivium that can be attacked practically was 805. Thirdly, based on the cube used to attack 892-round Kreyvium in EUROCRYPT 2020, we found more valuable cubes and mounted the key-recovery attacks against Kreyvium to 893-round.
Differential Attacks on CRAFT Exploiting the Involutory S-boxes and Tweak Additions 📺
CRAFT is a lightweight tweakable block cipher proposed at FSE 2019, which allows countermeasures against Differential Fault Attacks to be integrated into the cipher at the algorithmic level with ease. CRAFT employs a lightweight and involutory S-box and linear layer, such that the encryption function can be turned into decryption at a low cost. Besides, the tweakey schedule algorithm of CRAFT is extremely simple, where four 64-bit round tweakeys are generated and repeatedly used. Due to a combination of these features which makes CRAFT exceedingly lightweight, we find that some input difference at a particular position can be preserved through any number of rounds if the input pair follows certain truncated differential trails. Interestingly, in contrast to traditional differential analysis, the validity of this invariant property is affected by the positions where the constant additions take place. We use this property to construct “weak-tweakey” truncated differential distinguishers of CRAFT in the single-key model. Subsequently, we show how the tweak additions allow us to convert these weak-tweakey distinguishers into ordinary secret-key distinguishers based on which key-recovery attacks can be performed. Moreover, we show how to construct MILP models to search for truncated differential distinguishers exploiting this invariant property. As a result, we find a 15-round truncated differential distinguisher of CRAFT and extend it to a 19-round key-recovery attack with 260.99 data, 268 memory, 294.59 time complexity, and success probability 80.66%. Also, we find a 14-round distinguisher with probability 2−43 (experimentally verified), a 16-round distinguisher with probability 2−55, and a 20-round weak-key distinguisher (2118 weak keys) with probability 2−63. Experiments on round-reduced versions of the distinguishers show that the experimental probabilities are sometimes higher than predicted. Finally, we note that our result is far from threatening the security of the full CRAFT.
Preimage Attacks on Round-Reduced Keccak-224/256 via an Allocating Approach 📺
Ting Li Yao Sun
We present new preimage attacks on standard Keccak-224 and Keccak-256 that are reduced to 3 and 4 rounds. An allocating approach is used in the attacks, and the whole complexity is allocated to two stages, such that fewer constraints are considered and the complexity is lowered in each stage. Specifically, we are trying to find a 2-block preimage, instead of a 1-block one, for a given hash value, and the first and second message blocks are found in two stages, respectively. Both the message blocks are constrained by a set of newly proposed conditions on the middle state, which are weaker than those brought by the initial values and the hash values. Thus, the complexities in the two stages are both lower than that of finding a 1-block preimage directly. Together with the basic allocating approach, an improved method is given to balance the complexities of two stages, and hence, obtains the optimal attacks. As a result, we present the best theoretical preimage attacks on Keccak-224 and Keccak-256 that are reduced to 3 and 4 rounds. Moreover, we practically found a (second) preimage for 3-round Keccak-224 with a complexity of $$2^{39.39}$$.
Preimage Attacks on the Round-reduced Keccak with Cross-linear Structures
In this paper, based on the work pioneered by Aumasson and Meier, Dinur et al., and Guo et al., we construct some new delicate structures from the roundreduced versions of Keccakhash function family. The new constructed structures are called cross-linear structures, because linear polynomials appear across in different equations of these structures. And we apply cross-linear structures to do preimage attacks on some instances of the round-reduced Keccak. There are three main contributions in this paper. First, we construct a kind of cross-linear structures by setting the statuses carefully. With these cross-linear structures, guessing the value of one linear polynomial could lead to three linear equations (including the guessed one). Second, for some special cases, e.g. the 3-round Keccakchallenge instance Keccak[r=240, c=160, nr=3], a more special kind of cross-linear structures is constructed, and these structures can be used to obtain seven linear equations (including the guessed) if the values of two linear polynomials are guessed. Third, as applications of the cross-linear structures, we practically found a preimage for the 3-round KeccakChallenge instance Keccak[r=240, c=160, nr=3]. Besides, by constructing similar cross-linear structures, the complexity of the preimage attack on 3-round Keccak-256/SHA3-256/SHAKE256 can be lowered to 2150/2151/2153 operations, while the previous best known result on Keccak-256 is 2192.


Hao Guo (1)
Lei Hu (1)
Ting Li (3)
Maodong Liao (1)
Danping Shi (1)
Ling Sun (1)
Siwei Sun (1)
Meiqin Wang (1)
Dingkang Wang (1)