## CryptoDB

### Jiapeng Zhang

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2024

EUROCRYPT

Best-of-Both-Worlds Multiparty Quantum Computation with Publicly Verifiable Identifiable Abort
Abstract

Alon et al. (CRYPTO 2021) introduced a multiparty quantum computation protocol that is secure with identifiable abort (MPQC-SWIA). However, their protocol allows only inside MPQC parties to know the identity of malicious players. This becomes problematic when two groups of people disagree and need a third party, like a jury, to verify who the malicious party is. This issue takes on heightened significance in the quantum setting, given that quantum states may exist in only a single copy. Thus, we emphasize the necessity of a protocol with publicly verifiable identifiable abort (PVIA), enabling outside observers with only classical computational power to agree on the identity of the malicious party in case of an abort. However, achieving MPQC with PVIA poses significant challenges due to the no-cloning theorem, and previous works proposed by Mahadev (STOC 2018) and Chung et al. (Eurocrypt 2022) for classical verification of quantum computation fall short.
In this paper, we obtain the first MPQC-PVIA protocol assuming post-quantum oblivious transfer and a classical broadcast channel. The core component of our construction is a new authentication primitive called auditable quantum authentication (AQA) that identifies the malicious sender with overwhelming probability. Additionally, we provide the first MPQC protocol with best-of-both-worlds (BoBW) security, which guarantees output delivery with an honest majority and remains secure with abort even if the majority is dishonest. Our best-of-both-worlds MPQC protocol also satisfies PVIA upon abort.

2024

JOFC

Simple Constructions from (Almost) Regular One-Way Functions
Abstract

<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:p>Two of the most useful cryptographic primitives that can be constructed from one-way functions are <jats:italic>pseudorandom generators</jats:italic> (PRGs) and <jats:italic>universal one-way hash functions</jats:italic> (UOWHFs). In order to implement them in practice, the efficiency of such constructions must be considered. The three major efficiency measures are: the <jats:italic>seed length</jats:italic>, the <jats:italic>call complexity</jats:italic> to the one-way function, and the <jats:italic>adaptivity</jats:italic> of these calls. Still, the optimal efficiency of these constructions is not yet fully understood: there exist gaps between the known upper bound and the known lower bound for black-box constructions. A special class of one-way functions called <jats:italic>unknown-regular</jats:italic> one-way functions is much better understood. Haitner, Harnik and Reingold (CRYPTO 2006) presented a PRG construction with semi-linear seed length and linear number of calls based on a method called <jats:italic>randomized iterate</jats:italic>. Ames, Gennaro and Venkitasubramaniam (ASIACRYPT 2012) then gave a construction of UOWHF with similar parameters and using similar ideas. On the other hand, Holenstein and Sinha (FOCS 2012) and Barhum and Holenstein (TCC 2013) showed an almost linear call-complexity lower bound for black-box constructions of PRGs and UOWHFs from one-way functions. Hence, Haitner et al. and Ames et al. reached <jats:italic>tight</jats:italic> constructions (in terms of seed length and the number of calls) of PRGs and UOWHFs from regular one-way functions. These constructions, however, are adaptive. In this work, we present non-adaptive constructions for both primitives which match the optimal call complexity given by Holenstein and Sinha and Barhum and Holenstein. Our constructions, besides being simple and non-adaptive, are robust also for <jats:italic>almost-regular</jats:italic> one-way functions.</jats:p>

2023

EUROCRYPT

Non-Adaptive Universal One-Way Hash Functions from Arbitrary One-Way Functions
Abstract

Two of the most useful cryptographic primitives that can be constructed from one-way functions are pseudorandom generators (PRGs) and universal one-way hash functions (UOWHFs). The three major efficiency measures of these primitives are: seed length, number of calls to the one-way function, and adaptivity of these calls. Although a long and successful line of research studied these primitives, their optimal efficiency is not yet fully understood: there are gaps between the known upper bounds and the known lower bounds for black-box constructions.
Interestingly, the first construction of PRGs by H ̊astad, Impagliazzo, Levin, and Luby [SICOMP ’99], and the UOWHFs construction by Rompel [STOC ’90] shared a similar structure. Since then, there was an improvement in the efficiency of both constructions: The state-of-the-art construction of PRGs by Haitner, Reingold, and Vadhan [STOC ’10] uses O(n^4) bits of random seed and O(n^3) non-adaptive calls to the one-way function, or alternatively, seed of size O(n^3) with O(n^3) adaptive calls (Vadhan and Zhen [STOC ’12]). Constructing a UOWHF with similar parameters is still an open question. Currently, the best UOWHF construction by Haitner, Holenstein, Reingold, Vadhan, and Wee [Eurocrypt ’10] uses O(n^13) adaptive calls and a key of size O(n^5).
In this work we give the first non-adaptive construction of UOWHFs from arbitrary one-way functions. Our construction uses O(n^9) calls to the one-way function, and a key of length O(n^10). By the result of Applebaum, Ishai, and Kushilevitz [FOCS ’04], the above implies the existence of UOWHFs in NC0, given the existence of one-way functions in NC1. We also show that the PRG construction of Haitner et al., with small modifications, yields a relaxed notion of UOWHFs. In order to analyze this construction, we introduce the notion of next-bit unreachable entropy, which replaces the next-bit pseudoentropy notion, used in the PRG construction above.

2023

TCC

Communication Lower Bounds of Key-Agreement Protocols via Density Increment Arguments
Abstract

Constructing key-agreement protocols in the random oracle model (ROM) is a viable method to assess the feasibility of developing public-key cryptography within Minicrypt. Unfortunately, as shown by Impagliazzo and Rudich (STOC 1989) and Barak and Mahmoody (Crypto 2009), such protocols can only guarantee limited security: any $\ell$-query protocol can be attacked by an $O(\ell^2)$-query adversary. This quadratic gap matches the key-agreement protocol proposed by Merkle (CACM 78), known as Merkle's Puzzles.
Besides query complexity, the communication complexity of key-agreement protocols in the ROM is also an interesting question in the realm of find-grained cryptography, even though only limited security is achievable. Haitner et al. (ITCS 2019) first observed that in Merkle's Puzzles, to obtain secrecy against an eavesdropper with $O(\ell^2)$ queries, the honest parties must exchange $\Omega(\ell)$ bits.
Therefore, they conjectured that high communication complexity is unavoidable, any $\ell$-query protocols with $c$ bits of communication could be attacked by an $O(c\cdot \ell)$-query adversary.
This, if true, will suggest that Merkle's Puzzle is also optimal regarding communication complexity. Building upon techniques from communication complexity, Haitner et al. (ITCS 2019) confirmed this conjecture for two types of key agreement protocols with certain natural properties.
This work affirms the above conjecture for all non-adaptive protocols with perfect completeness.
Our proof uses a novel idea called \textit{density increment argument}. This method could be of independent interest as it differs from previous communication lower bounds techniques (and bypasses some technical barriers).

2021

TCC

Simple Constructions from (Almost) Regular One-Way Functions
📺
Abstract

Two of the most useful cryptographic primitives that can be constructed from one-way functions are pseudorandom generators (PRGs) and universal one-way hash functions (UOWHFs). In order to implement them in practice, the efficiency of such constructions must be considered. The three major efficiency measures are: the seed length, the call complexity to the one-way function, and the adaptivity of these calls. Still, the optimal efficiency of these constructions is not yet fully understood: there exist gaps between the known upper bound and the known lower bound for black-box constructions.
A special class of one-way functions called unknown-regular one-way functions is much better understood. Haitner, Harnik and Reingold (CRYPTO 2006) presented a PRG construction with semi-linear seed length and linear number of calls based on a method called randomized iterate. Ames, Gennaro and Venkitasubramaniam (TCC 2012) then gave a construction of UOWHF with similar parameters and using similar ideas. On the other hand, Holenstein and Sinha (FOCS 2012) and Barhum and Holenstein (TCC 2013) showed an almost linear call-complexity lower bound for black-box constructions of PRGs and UOWHFs from one-way functions. Hence Haitner et al. and Ames et al. reached tight constructions (in terms of seed length and the number of calls) of PRGs and UOWHFs from regular one-way functions. These constructions, however, are adaptive.
In this work, we present non-adaptive constructions for both primitives which match the optimal call-complexity given by Holenstein and Sinha and Barhum and Holenstein. Our constructions, besides being simple and non-adaptive, are robust also for almost-regular one-way functions.

2021

TCC

Unifying Presampling via Concentration Bounds
📺
Abstract

Auxiliary-input (AI) idealized models, such as auxiliary-input random oracle model (AI-ROM) and auxiliary-input random permutation model (AI-PRM), play a critical role in assessing non-uniform security of symmetric key and hash function constructions. However, obtaining security bounds in these models is often much more challenging.
The presampling technique, introduced by Unruh (CRYPTO' 07), generically reduces security proofs in the auxiliary-input models to much simpler bit-fixing models. This technique has been further optimized by Coretti, Dodis, Guo, Steinberger (EUROCRYPT' 18), and generalized by Coretti, Dodis, Guo (CRYPTO' 18), resulting in powerful tools for proving non-uniform security bounds in various idealized models.
We study the possibility of leveraging the presampling technique to the quantum world. To this end,
(*) We show that such leveraging will {resolve a major open problem in quantum computing, which is closely related to the famous Aaronson-Ambainis conjecture (ITCS' 11).
(*) Faced with this barrier, we give a new but equivalent bit-fixing model and a simple proof of presampling techniques for arbitrary oracle distribution in the classical setting, including AI-ROM and AI-RPM. Our theorem matches the best-known security loss and unifies previous presampling techniques.
(*) Finally, we leverage our new classical presampling techniques to a novel ``quantum bit-fixing'' version of presampling. It matches the optimal security loss of the classical presampling. Using our techniques, we give the first post-quantum non-uniform security for salted Merkle-Damgard hash functions and reprove the tight non-uniform security for function inversion by Chung et al. (FOCS' 20).

#### Coauthors

- Kai-Min Chung (1)
- Siyao Guo (1)
- Mi-Ying Huang (1)
- Mi-Ying (Miryam) Huang (1)
- Qian Li (1)
- Qipeng Liu (1)
- Shachar Lovett (1)
- Xianping Mao (2)
- Noam Mazor (3)
- Bo Tang (1)
- Er-Cheng Tang (1)
- Guangxu Yang (1)
- Jiapeng Zhang (8)