International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Ryoma Ito


Areion: Highly-Efficient Permutations and Its Applications to Hash Functions for Short Input
In the real-world applications, the overwhelming majority of cases require hashing with relatively short input, say up to 2K bytes. The length of almost all TCP/IP packets is between 40 to 1.5K bytes, and the maximum packet lengths of major protocols, e.g., Zigbee, Bluetooth low energy, and Controller Area Network (CAN) are less than 128 bytes. However, existing schemes are not well optimized for short input. To bridge the gap between real-world needs (in future) and limited performances of state-of-the-art hash functions for short input, we design a family of wide-block permutations Areion that fully leverages the power of AES instructions, which are widely deployed in many devices. As its applications, we propose several hash functions. Areion significantly outperforms existing schemes for short input and even competitive to relatively long message. Indeed, our hash function is surprisingly fast, and its performance is less than 3 cycles/byte in the latest Intel architecture for any message size. Especially, it is about 10 times faster than existing state-of-the-art schemes for short message up to around 100 bytes, which are most widely-used input size in real-world applications, on both the latest CPU architectures (IceLake, Tiger Lake, and Alder Lake) and mobile platforms (Pixel 6 and iPhone 13).
Key Committing Security of AEZ and More
For an Authenticated Encryption with Associated Data (AEAD) scheme, the key committing security refers to the security notion of whether the adversary can produce a pair of distinct input tuples, including the key, that result in the same output. While the key committing security of various nonce-based AEAD schemes is known, the security analysis of Robust AE (RAE) is largely unexplored. In particular, we are interested in the key committing security of AEAD schemes built on the Encode-then-Encipher (EtE) approach from a wide block cipher. We first consider AEZ v5, the classical and the first dedicated RAE that employs the EtE approach. We focus our analysis on the core part of AEZ to show our best attacks depending on the length of the ciphertext expansion. In the general case where the Tweakable Block Cipher (TBC) is assumed to be ideal, we show a birthday attack and a matching provable security result. AEZ adopts a simpler key schedule and the prove-then-prune approach in the full specification, and we show a practical attack against it by exploiting the simplicity of the key schedule. The complexity is 227, and we experimentally verify the correctness with a concrete example. We also cover two AEAD schemes based on EtE. One is built on Adiantum, and the other one is built on HCTR2, which are two wide block ciphers that are used in real applications. We present key committing attacks against these schemes when used in EtE and matching proofs for particular cases.
Cryptanalysis of Rocca and Feasibility of Its Security Claim
Rocca is an authenticated encryption with associated data scheme for beyond 5G/6G systems. It was proposed at FSE 2022/ToSC 2021(2), and the designers make a security claim of achieving 256-bit security against key-recovery and distinguishing attacks, and 128-bit security against forgery attacks (the security claim regarding distinguishing attacks was subsequently weakened in the full version in ePrint 2022/116). A notable aspect of the claim is the gap between the privacy and authenticity security. In particular, the security claim regarding key-recovery attacks allows an attacker to obtain multiple forgeries through the decryption oracle. In this paper, we first present a full key-recovery attack on Rocca. The data complexity of our attack is 2128 and the time complexity is about 2128, where the attack makes use of the encryption and decryption oracles, and the success probability is almost 1. The attack recovers the entire 256-bit key in a single-key and nonce-respecting setting, breaking the 256-bit security claim against key-recovery attacks. We then extend the attack to various security models and discuss several countermeasures to see the feasibility of the security claim. Finally, we consider a theoretical question of whether achieving the security claim of Rocca is possible in the provable security paradigm. We present both negative and positive results to the question.
New Cryptanalysis of ZUC-256 Initialization Using Modular Differences
ZUC-256 is a stream cipher designed for 5G applications by the ZUC team. Together with AES-256 and SNOW-V, it is currently being under evaluation for standardized algorithms in 5G mobile telecommunications by Security Algorithms Group of Experts (SAGE). A notable feature of the round update function of ZUC-256 is that many operations are defined over different fields, which significantly increases the difficulty to analyze the algorithm.As a main contribution, with the tools of the modular difference, signed difference and XOR difference, we develop new techniques to carefully control the interactions between these operations defined over different fields. At first glance, our techniques are somewhat similar to those developed by Wang et al. for the MD-SHA hash family. However, as ZUC-256 is quite different from the MD-SHA hash family and its round function is much more complex, we are indeed dealing with different problems and overcoming new obstacles.As main results, by utilizing complex input differences, we can present the first distinguishing attacks on 31 out of 33 rounds of ZUC-256 and 30 out of 33 rounds of the new version of ZUC-256 called ZUC-256-v2 with low time and data complexities, respectively. These attacks target the initialization phase and work in the related-key model with weak keys. Moreover, with a novel IV-correcting technique, we show how to efficiently recover at least 16 key bits for 15-round ZUC-256 and 14-round ZUC-256-v2 in the related-key setting, respectively. It is unpredictable whether our attacks can be further extended to more rounds with more advanced techniques. Based on the current attacks, we believe that the full 33 initialization rounds provide marginal security.

Program Committees

FSE 2023