## CryptoDB

### Emmanuel Prouff

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2020

CRYPTO

Random Probing Security: Verification, Composition, Expansion and New Constructions
📺
Abstract

Masking countermeasure is among the most powerful countermeasures to counteract side-channel attacks. Leakage models have been exhibited to theoretically reason on the security of such masked implementations. So far, the most widely used leakage model is the probing model defined by Ishai, Sahai, and Wagner at (CRYPTO 2003). While it is advantageously convenient for security proofs, it does not capture an adversary exploiting full leakage traces as, e.g., in horizontal attacks. Those attacks target the multiple manipulation of the same share to average a constant noise and recover the corresponding value. To capture a wider class of attacks another model was introduced and is referred to as the random probing model. From a leakage parameter p, each wire of the circuit leaks its value with probability p. While this model much better reflects the physical reality of side channels, it requires more complex security proofs and does not yet come with practical constructions.
In this paper, we define the first framework dedicated to the random probing model. We provide an automatic tool, called VRAPS, to quantify the random probing security of a circuit from its leakage probability. We also formalize a composition property for secure random probing gadgets and exhibit its relation to the strong non-interference (SNI) notion used in the context of probing security. We then revisit the expansion idea proposed by Ananth, Ishai, and Sahai (CRYPTO 2018) and introduce a compiler that builds a random probing secure circuit from small base gadgets achieving a random probing expandability property. We instantiate this compiler with small gadgets for which we verify the expected properties directly from our automatic tool. Our construction can tolerate a leakage probability up to 2^−8, against 2^−25 for the previous construction, with a better asymptotic complexity.

2019

TCHES

Deep Learning to Evaluate Secure RSA Implementations
📺
Abstract

This paper presents the results of several successful profiled side-channel attacks against a secure implementation of the RSA algorithm. The implementation was running on a ARM Core SC 100 completed with a certified EAL4+ arithmetic co-processor. The analyses have been conducted by three experts’ teams, each working on a specific attack path and exploiting information extracted either from the electromagnetic emanation or from the power consumption. A particular attention is paid to the description of all the steps that are usually followed during a security evaluation by a laboratory, including the acquisitions and the observations preprocessing which are practical issues usually put aside in the literature. Remarkably, the profiling portability issue is also taken into account and different device samples are involved for the profiling and testing phases. Among other aspects, this paper shows the high potential of deep learning attacks against secure implementations of RSA and raises the need for dedicated countermeasures.

2019

TCHES

A Comprehensive Study of Deep Learning for Side-Channel Analysis
📺
Abstract

Recently, several studies have been published on the application of deep learning to enhance Side-Channel Attacks (SCA). These seminal works have practically validated the soundness of the approach, especially against implementations protected by masking or by jittering. Concurrently, important open issues have emerged. Among them, the relevance of machine (and thereby deep) learning based SCA has been questioned in several papers based on the lack of relation between the accuracy, a typical performance metric used in machine learning, and common SCA metrics like the Guessing entropy or the key-discrimination success rate. Also, the impact of the classical side-channel counter-measures on the efficiency of deep learning has been questioned, in particular by the semi-conductor industry. Both questions enlighten the importance of studying the theoretical soundness of deep learning in the context of side-channel and of developing means to quantify its efficiency, especially with respect to the optimality bounds published so far in the literature for side-channel leakage exploitation. The first main contribution of this paper directly concerns the latter point. It is indeed proved that minimizing the Negative Log Likelihood (NLL for short) loss function during the training of deep neural networks is actually asymptotically equivalent to maximizing the Perceived Information introduced by Renauld et al. at EUROCRYPT 2011 as a lower bound of the Mutual Information between the leakage and the target secret. Hence, such a training can be considered as an efficient and effective estimation of the PI, and thereby of the MI (known to be complex to accurately estimate in the context of secure implementations). As a second direct consequence of our main contribution, it is argued that, in a side-channel exploitation context, choosing the NLL loss function to drive the training is sound from an information theory point of view. As a third contribution, classical counter-measures like Boolean masking or execution flow shuffling, initially dedicated to classical SCA, are proved to stay sound against deep Learning based attacks.

2019

TCC

Lower and Upper Bounds on the Randomness Complexity of Private Computations of AND
Abstract

We consider multi-party information-theoretic private protocols, and specifically their randomness complexity. The randomness complexity of private protocols is of interest both because random bits are considered a scarce resource, and because of the relation between that complexity measure and other complexity measures of boolean functions such as the circuit size or the sensitivity of the function being computed [12, 17].More concretely, we consider the randomness complexity of the basic boolean function and, that serves as a building block in the design of many private protocols. We show that and cannot be privately computed using a single random bit, thus giving the first non-trivial lower bound on the 1-private randomness complexity of an explicit boolean function, $$f: \{0,1\}^n \rightarrow \{0,1\}$$. We further show that the function and, on any number of inputs n (one input bit per player), can be privately computed using 8 random bits (and 7 random bits in the special case of $$n=3$$ players), improving the upper bound of 73 random bits implicit in [17]. Together with our lower bound, we thus approach the exact determination of the randomness complexity of and. To the best of our knowledge, the exact randomness complexity of private computation is not known for any explicit function (except for xor, which is trivially 1-random, and for several degenerate functions).

2018

TCHES

Linear Repairing Codes and Side-Channel Attacks
📺
Abstract

To strengthen the resistance of countermeasures based on secret sharing,several works have suggested to use the scheme introduced by Shamir in 1978, which proposes to use the evaluation of a random d-degree polynomial into n ≥ d + 1 public points to share the sensitive data. Applying the same principles used against the classical Boolean sharing, all these works have assumed that the most efficient attack strategy was to exploit the minimum number of shares required to rebuild the sensitive value; which is d + 1 if the reconstruction is made with Lagrange’s interpolation. In this paper, we highlight first an important difference between Boolean and Shamir’s sharings which implies that, for some signal-to-noise ratio, it is more advantageous for the adversary to observe strictly more than d + 1 shares. We argue that this difference is related to the existence of so-called linear exact repairing codes, which themselves come with reconstruction formulae that need (much) less information (counted in bits) than Lagrange’s interpolation. In particular, this result implies that the choice of the public points in Shamir’s sharing has an impact on the countermeasure strength, which confirms previous observations made by Wang et al. at CARDIS 2016 for the so-called inner product sharing which is a generalization of Shamir’s scheme. As another contribution, we exhibit a positive impact of the existence of linear exact repairing schemes; we indeed propose to use them to improve the state-of-the-art multiplication algorithms dedicated to Shamir’s sharing. We argue that the improvement can be effective when the multiplication operation in the sub-fields is at least two times smaller than that of the base field.

2017

CHES

Convolutional Neural Networks with Data Augmentation Against Jitter-Based Countermeasures
Abstract

In the context of the security evaluation of cryptographic implementations, profiling attacks (aka Template Attacks) play a fundamental role. Nowadays the most popular Template Attack strategy consists in approximating the information leakages by Gaussian distributions. Nevertheless this approach suffers from the difficulty to deal with both the traces misalignment and the high dimensionality of the data. This forces the attacker to perform critical preprocessing phases, such as the selection of the points of interest and the realignment of measurements. Some software and hardware countermeasures have been conceived exactly to create such a misalignment. In this paper we propose an end-to-end profiling attack strategy based on the Convolutional Neural Networks: this strategy greatly facilitates the attack roadmap, since it does not require a previous trace realignment nor a precise selection of points of interest. To significantly increase the performances of the CNN, we moreover propose to equip it with the data augmentation technique that is classical in other applications of Machine Learning. As a validation, we present several experiments against traces misaligned by different kinds of countermeasures, including the augmentation of the clock jitter effect in a secure hardware implementation over a modern chip. The excellent results achieved in these experiments prove that Convolutional Neural Networks approach combined with data augmentation gives a very efficient alternative to the state-of-the-art profiling attacks.

2011

CHES

#### Program Committees

- CHES 2019
- CHES 2018
- Eurocrypt 2017
- CHES 2017
- CHES 2016
- CHES 2015
- Eurocrypt 2015
- Eurocrypt 2014
- CHES 2014
- Asiacrypt 2014
- CHES 2013
- CHES 2012 (Program chair)
- CHES 2010
- CHES 2008

#### Coauthors

- Sébastien Aumônier (1)
- Lejla Batina (1)
- Alberto Battistello (1)
- Aurélie Bauer (1)
- Sonia Belaïd (4)
- Fabrice Benhamouda (2)
- Eleonora Cagli (1)
- Mathieu Carbone (1)
- Claude Carlet (3)
- Hervé Chabanne (1)
- Vincent Conin (1)
- Marie-Angela Cornélie (1)
- Jean-Sébastien Coron (7)
- François Dassance (1)
- Julien Doget (1)
- Emmanuelle Dottax (1)
- Guillaume Dufresne (1)
- Cécile Dumas (3)
- Pierre-Alain Fouque (1)
- Laurie Genelle (1)
- Benoît Gérard (1)
- Benedikt Gierlichs (1)
- Christophe Giraud (2)
- Louis Goubin (1)
- Aurélien Greuet (1)
- Éliane Jaulmes (1)
- Jean-Gabriel Kammerer (1)
- Eyal Kushilevitz (1)
- Victor Lomné (3)
- Houssem Maghrebi (1)
- Loïc Masure (1)
- Robert P. McEvoy (1)
- Rafail Ostrovsky (1)
- Alain Passelègue (2)
- Michaël Quisquater (1)
- Michaël Quisquater (1)
- Matthieu Rivain (12)
- Thomas Roche (7)
- Adi Rosén (1)
- François-Xavier Standaert (1)
- Abdul Rahman Taleb (1)
- Adrian Thillard (5)
- Alexandre Venelli (1)
- Damien Vergnaud (3)
- Nicolas Veyrat-Charvillon (1)
- Rina Zeitoun (2)