International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

CryptoDB

Hideki Imai

Publications

Year
Venue
Title
2010
EPRINT
Security Proof of AugPAKE
In this paper, we show that the AugPAKE protocol provides the semantic security of session keys under the strong Diffie-Hellman (SDH) assumption in the random oracle model.
2008
EPRINT
A Novel Probabilistic Passive Attack on the Protocols HB and HB+
We present a very simple probabilistic, passive attack against the protocols HB and HB+. Our attack presents some interesting features: it requires less captured transcripts of protocol executions when com- pared to previous results; It makes possible to trade the amount of required transcripts for computational complexity; the value of noise used in the protocols HB and HB+ need not be known.
2008
EPRINT
An improvement of discrete Tardos fingerprinting codes
It has been known that the code lengths of Tardos's collusion-secure fingerprinting codes are of theoretically minimal order with respect to the number of adversarial users (pirates). However, the code lengths can be further reduced, as some preceding studies on Tardos's codes already revealed. In this article we improve a recent discrete variant of Tardos's codes, and give a security proof of our codes under an assumption weaker than the original assumption (Marking Assumption). Our analysis shows that our codes have significantly shorter lengths than Tardos's codes. For example, in a practical setting, the code lengths of our codes are about 3.01%, 4.28%, and 4.81% of Tardos's codes if the numbers of pirates are 2, 4, and 6, respectively.
2008
EPRINT
A Secure Threshold Anonymous Password-Authenticated Key Exchange Protocol
At Indocrypt 2005, Viet et al., [22] have proposed an anonymous password-authenticated key exchange (PAKE) protocol and its threshold construction both of which are designed for client's password-based authentication and anonymity against a passive server, who does not deviate the protocol. In this paper, we first point out that their threshold construction is completely insecure against off-line dictionary attacks. For the threshold t > 1, we propose a secure threshold anonymous PAKE (for short, TAP) protocol with the number of clients n upper-bounded, such that n \leq 2 \sqrt{N-1} -1, where N is a dictionary size of passwords. We rigorously prove that the TAP protocol has semantic security of session keys in the random oracle model by showing the reduction to the computational Diffie-Hellman problem. In addition, the TAP protocol provides unconditional anonymity against a passive server. For the threshold t=1, we propose an efficient anonymous PAKE protocol that significantly improves efficiency in terms of computation costs and communication bandwidth compared to the original (not threshold) anonymous PAKE protocol [22].
2007
ASIACRYPT
2007
FSE
2007
EPRINT
Efficient Hybrid Encryption from ID-Based Encryption
This paper deals with generic transformations from ID-based key encapsulation mechanisms (IBKEM) to hybrid public-key encryption (PKE). The best generic transformation known until now is by Boneh and Katz and requires roughly 704-bit overhead in the ciphertext. We present two new such generic transformations that are applicable to partitioned IBKEMs. A partitioned IBKEM is an IBKEM that provides some extra structure. Such IBKEMs are quite natural and in fact nearly all known IBKEMs have this additional property. Our first transformation yields chosen-ciphertext secure PKE schemes from selective-ID secure partitioned IBKEMs with a 256-bit overhead in ciphertext size plus one extra exponentiation in encryption/decryption. As the central tool a Chameleon Hash function is used to map the identities. The second transformation transforms adaptive-ID secure partitioned IBKEMs into chosen-ciphertext secure PKE schemes with no additional overhead. Applying our transformations to existing IBKEMs we propose a number of novel PKE schemes with different trade-offs. In some concrete instantiations the Chameleon Hash can be made “implicit” which results in improved efficiency by eliminating the additional exponentiation. Since our transformations preserve the public verifiability property of the IBE schemes it is possible to extend our results to build threshold hybrid PKE schemes. We show an analogue generic transformation in the threshold setting and present a concrete scheme which results in the most efficient threshold PKE scheme in the standard model.
2007
EPRINT
Formal Security Treatments for IBE-to-Signature Transformation: Relations among Security Notions
In a seminal paper of identity based encryption (IBE), Boneh and Franklin [BF01] mentioned an interesting transform from an IBE scheme to a signature scheme, which was observed by Moni Naor. In this paper, we give formal security treatments for this transform and discover several implications and separations among security notions of IBE and transformed signature. For example, we show for such a successful transform, one-wayness of IBE is an essential condition. Additionally, we give a sufficient and necessary condition for converting a semantically secure IBE scheme into an existentially unforgeable signature scheme. Our results help establish strategies on design and automatic security proof of signature schemes from (possibly weak) IBE schemes. We also show some separation results which strongly support that one-wayness, rather than semantic security, of IBE captures an essential condition to achieve secure signature.
2006
ASIACRYPT
2006
PKC
2006
EPRINT
Gr\"obner Basis Based Cryptanalysis of SHA-1
Recently, Wang proposed a new method to cryptanalyze SHA-1 and found collisions of $58$-round SHA-1. However many details of Wang's attack are still unpublished, especially, 1) How to find differential paths? 2) How to modify messages properly? For the first issue, some results have already been reported. In our article, we clarify the second issue and give a sophisticated method based on Gr\"obner basis techniques. We propose two algorithm based on the basic and an improved message modification techniques respectively. The complexity of our algorithm to find a collision for 58-round SHA-1 based on the basic message modification is $2^{29}$ message modifications and its implementation is equivalent to $2^{31}$ SHA-1 computation experimentally, whereas Wang's method needs $2^{34}$ SHA-1 computation. We propose an improved message modification and apply it to construct a more sophisticated algorithm to find a collision. The complexity to find a collision for 58-round SHA-1 based on this improved message modification technique is $2^8$ message modifications, but our latest implementation is very slow, equivalent to $2^{31}$ SHA-1 computation experimentally. However we conjecture that our algorithm can be improved by techniques of error correcting code and Gr\"obner basis. By using our methods, we have found many collisions for $58$-round SHA-1.
2006
EPRINT
A Novel Algorithm for Solving the LPN Problem and its Application to Security Evaluation of the HB Protocol for RFID Authentication
A novel algorithm for solving the LPN problem is proposed and analyzed. The algorithm originates from the recently proposed advanced fast correlation attacks, and it employs the concepts of decimation, linear combining, hypothesizing and minimum distance decoding. The proposed algorithm appears as more powerful than the best one previously reported known as the BKW algorithm. In fact the BKW algorithm is shown to be a special instance of the proposed algorithm, but without optimized parameters. An improved security evaluation of the HB protocol for RFID authentication is then developed. Employing the proposed algorithm, the security of the HB protocol is reevaluated, implying that the previously reported security margins appear as overestimated.
2006
EPRINT
A Generic Construction of CCA-Secure Cryptosystems without NIZKP for a Bounded Number of Decryption Queries
Goichiro Hanaoka Hideki Imai
In this paper, we propose a generic construction of chosen-ciphertext secure cryptosystems against adversaries with a bounded number of decrytion queries from arbitrary semantically secure encryption in a black box manner. Our construction is not only an alternative to the previously known technique, i.e. the Naor-Yung paradigm, but also has some interesting properties. Especially, (1) it does not require non-interactive zero-knowledge proof, and (2) its component ciphertexts can be compressed into only one if the underlying encryption has a certain homomorphic property. Consequently, when applying our construction to the ElGamal encryption, ciphertext overhead of the resulting scheme will be only one group element which is considered optimal since it is the same as the original ElGamal. Disadvantages to previous schemes are that the upper bound of the number of decryption queries (e.g. 2^{30}) has to be known before set-up phase, and the size of public key is large.
2005
ASIACRYPT
2005
ASIACRYPT
2005
EPRINT
Time-Data-Memory Trade-Off Based Cryptanalysis of Certain Broadcast Encryption Schemes
This paper points out to a generic vulnerability of certain broadcast encryption schemes. This vulnerability can be effectively explored assuming chosen plaintext attacks, and in some cases even under ciphertext only attack. The developed methods for cryptanalysis are based on an attacking approach not taken into account in the security evaluations of the reported broadcast encryption schemes. The proposed attacks are based on employment of a dedicated time-data-memory trade-off approach for cryptanalysis. Two algorithms for cryptanalysis are proposed and their main characteristics regarding the complexity and required sample are pointed out. The algorithms are applied for cryptanalysis of particular recently reported broadcast encryption schemes implying that their security is far below the claimed ones.
2005
EPRINT
Security Proof of "Efficient and Leakage-Resilient Authenticated Key Transport Protocol Based on RSA"
In this paper, we prove the security of the {\sf RSA-AKE} protocol \cite{SKI05} in the random oracle model. The proof states that the {\sf RSA-AKE} protocol is secure against an adversary who gets the client's stored secret \emph{or} the server's RSA private key.\footnote{The protocol is the same as \cite{SKI05}, but we corrected the security proof partially. The attacks appeared in \cite{TM05} are no longer available in the proof since the adversary has access to either the client's stored secret or the server's private key, not both of them.} To our best knowledge, the {\sf RSA-AKE} protocol is the most efficient among their kinds (i.e., RSA and password based AKE protocols). The other security properties and efficiency measurements of the {\sf RSA-AKE} protocol remain the same as in \cite{SKI05}.
2005
EPRINT
Relations Among Notions of Security for Identity Based Encryption Schemes
Identity based encryption (IBE) schemes have been flourishing since the very beginning of this century. In IBE it is widely believed that proving the security of a scheme in the sense of IND-ID-CCA2 is sufficient to claim the scheme is also secure in the senses of both SS-ID-CCA2 and NM-ID-CCA2. The justification for this belief is the relations among indistinguishability (IND), semantic security (SS) and non-malleability (NM). But these relations are proved only for conventional public key encryption (PKE) schemes in historical works. The fact is that between IBE and PKE, there exists a difference of special importance, i.e. only in IBE the adversaries can perform a particular attack, namely the chosen identity attack. This paper shows that security proved in the sense of IND-ID-CCA2 is validly sufficient for implying security in any other sense in IBE. This is to say the security notion, IND-ID-CCA2, captures the essence of security for all IBE schemes. To achieve this intention, we first describe formal definitions of the notions of security for IBE, and then present the relations among IND, SS and NM in IBE, along with rigorous proofs. All of these results are proposed with the consideration of the chosen identity attack.
2005
EPRINT
Efficient Identity-Based Encryption with Tight Security Reduction
In a famous paper of Crypto'01, Boneh and Franklin proposed the first identity-based encryption scheme (IBE), around fifteen years after the concept was introduced by Shamir. Their scheme security (more precisely, the notion of resistance against an IND-ID-CCA attacker) relies in the random oracle model. However, the reduction is far from being tight, and notably depends on the number of extractions queries. In this paper, we present an efficient modification to the Boneh-Franklin scheme that provides a tight reduction. Our scheme is basically an IBE under two keys, one of which is (randomly) detained by the recipient. It can be viewed as a continuation of an idea introduced by Katz and Wang; we will however show how our construction improves this last scheme. Our scheme features a tight reduction to the list bilinear Diffie-Hellman (LBDH) problem, which can be itself reduced tightly either to the gap bilinear Diffie-Hellman (GBDH) or the decisional bilinear Diffie-Hellman (DBDH) problems. Furthermore, for a relaxed notion of tightness (called weak-tightness) that we introduce and discuss in our paper, we show that there is a weakly tight reduction from our scheme to the computational bilinear Diffie-Hellman (CBDH) problem. Our scheme is very efficient, as one can precompute most of the quantity involved in the encryption process. Furthermore, the ciphertext size is very short: for proposed parameters, they are |M|+330 bits long.
2004
ASIACRYPT
2004
ASIACRYPT
2004
PKC
2004
EPRINT
Relation between XL algorithm and Groebner Bases Algorithms
We clarify a relation between the XL algorithm and Groebner bases algorithms. The XL algorithm was proposed to be a more efficient algorithm to solve a system of equations with a special assumption without trying to calculate a whole Groebner basis. But in our result, it is shown that the XL algorithm is also a Groebner bases algorithm which can be represented as a redundant version of a Groebner bases algorithm F4 under the assumption in XL.
2004
EPRINT
Identity-Based Hierarchical Strongly Key-Insulated Encryption and Its Application
In this paper, we discuss non-interactive updating of decryption keys in identity-based encryption (IBE). IBE is a public key cryptosystem where a public key is an arbitrary string. In practice, key revocation is a necessary and inevitable process and IBE is no exception when it comes to having to manage revocation of decryption keys without losing its merits in efficiency. Our main contribution of this paper is to propose novel constructions of IBE where the decryption key can be renewed without having to make changes to its public key, i.e. user's identity. We achieve this by tactfully extending the hierarchical IBE (HIBE). Regarding security, we address semantic security against adaptive chosen cipher-text attack for a very strong attack environment that models all possible types of key exposures in the random oracle model. Straightforward extension of the HIBE, however, does not achieve our goal and such scheme is completely insecure under our attack model. In addition to this, we show method of constructing (partially collusion resistant) HIBE from arbitrary IBE in the random oracle model. By combining these results, we can construct an IBE with non-interactive key update from only an arbitrary IBE.
2003
ASIACRYPT
2003
ASIACRYPT
2003
PKC
2003
EPRINT
Pretty-Simple Password-Authenticated Key-Exchange Under Standard Assumptions
Kazukuni Kobara Hideki Imai
In this paper, we propose a pretty-simple password-authenticated key-exchange protocol, which is proven to be secure in the standard model under the following three assumptions. (1) DDH (Decision Diffie-Hellman) problem is hard. (2) The entropy of the password is large enough to avoid on-line exhaustive search (but not necessarily off-line exhaustive search). (3) MAC is selectively unforgeable against partially chosen message attacks, (which is weaker than being existentially unforgeable against chosen message attacks).
2003
EPRINT
Commitment Capacity of Discrete Memoryless Channels
In extension of the bit commitment task and following work initiated by Crepeau and Kilian, we introduce and solve the problem of characterising the optimal rate at which a discrete memoryless channel can be used for bit commitment. It turns out that the answer is very intuitive: it is the maximum equivocation of the channel (after removing trivial redundancy), even when unlimited noiseless bidirectional side communication is allowed. By a well-known reduction, this result provides a lower bound on the channel's capacity for implementing coin tossing, which we conjecture to be an equality. The method of proving this relates the problem to Wyner's wire--tap channel in an amusing way. We also discuss extensions to quantum channels.
2003
EPRINT
On the Security of Multiple Encryption or CCA-security+CCA-security=CCA-security?
In a practical system, a message is often encrypted more than once by different encryptions, here called multiple encryption, to enhance its security. Additionally, new features may be achieved by multiple encrypting a message for a scheme, such as the key-insulated cryptosystems \cite{DKXY02} and anonymous channels \cite{Cha81}. Intuitively, a multiple encryption should remain ``secure'', whenever there is one component cipher unbreakable in it. In NESSIE's latest Portfolio of recommended cryptographic primitives (Feb. 2003), it is suggested to use multiple encryption with component ciphers based on different assumptions to acquire long term security. However, in this paper we show this needs careful discussion. Especially, this may \emph{not} be true according to (adaptive) chosen ciphertext attack ({\sf CCA}), even with all component ciphers {\sf CCA} secure. We define an extended version of {\sf CCA} called \emph{chosen ciphertext attack for multiple encryption} ({\sf ME-CCA}) to emulate real world partial breaking of assumptions, and give constructions of multiple encryption satisfying {\sf ME-CCA} security. Since {\sf CCA} security seems so stringent, we further relax it by introducing \emph{weak} {\sf ME-CCA} ({\sf ME-wCCA}), and prove {\sf IND-ME-wCCA} secure multiple encryption can be acquired from {\sf IND-gCCA} secure component ciphers. We also study the relation of various security notions for multiple encryption. We then apply these results to key-insulated cryptosystem. It is only previously known in \cite{DKXY02} that a generic construction exists provably secure against {\sf CPA} attack, however, we prove that this generic construction is in fact secure against {\sf ME-wCCA} by choosing all components {\sf IND-CCA} secure. We also give an efficient generic construction of key-insulated cryptosystem, which is so far the \emph{first} generic construction provably secure against {\sf CCA} (in the random oracle model).
2002
ASIACRYPT
2002
EUROCRYPT
2002
PKC
2002
PKC
2002
EPRINT
Equivalence between semantic security and indistinguishability against chosen ciphertext attacks
The aim of this work is to examine the relation between the notions of semantic security and indistinguishability against chosen ciphertext attacks. For this purpose, a new security notion called non-dividability is introduced independent of attack models, and is shown to be equivalent to both of the two notions. This result is expected to provide a clearer understanding of the equivalence between semantic security and indistinguishability under any form of attack.
2002
EPRINT
OAEP++ : A Very Simple Way to Apply OAEP to Deterministic OW-CPA Primitives
Kazukuni Kobara Hideki Imai
We prove in the random oracle model that OAEP++, which was proposed by us at the rump session of Asiacrypt 2000, can generate IND-CCA2 ciphers using deterministic OW-CPA cryptographic primitives. Note that OAEP++ differs from OAEP$^{++}$ proposed by Jonsson in \cite{Jon02}. While OAEP$^{++}$ requires a non-malleable block cipher, OAEP++ does not require such additional functions. The security reduction of OAEP++ is as tight as that of OAEP$^{++}$.
2001
ASIACRYPT
2001
FSE
2001
PKC
2001
PKC
2000
ASIACRYPT
2000
ASIACRYPT
2000
FSE
1999
ASIACRYPT
1999
ASIACRYPT
1999
EUROCRYPT
1999
PKC
1998
PKC
1996
ASIACRYPT
1994
ASIACRYPT
1992
AUSCRYPT
1992
AUSCRYPT
1992
EUROCRYPT
1992
EUROCRYPT
1991
ASIACRYPT
1990
CRYPTO
1990
CRYPTO
1989
CRYPTO
1989
EUROCRYPT
1988
CRYPTO
1988
EUROCRYPT
1987
CRYPTO

Program Committees

PKC 2000 (Program chair)
PKC 1999 (Program chair)
PKC 1998 (Program chair)
Eurocrypt 1995
Auscrypt 1992
Asiacrypt 1991 (Program chair)