International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Zhengzhong Jin


Non-Interactive Zero-Knowledge from LPN and MQ
Quang Dao Aayush Jain Zhengzhong Jin
We give the first construction of non-interactive zero-knowledge (NIZK) arguments from post-quantum assumptions other than Learning with Errors. In particular, we achieve NIZK under the polynomial hardness of the Learning Parity with Noise (LPN) assumption, and the exponential hardness of solving random underdetermined multivariate quadratic equations (MQ). We also construct NIZK satisfying statistical zero-knowledge assuming a new variant of LPN, Dense-Sparse LPN, introduced by Dao and Jain (ePrint 2024), together with exponentially-hard MQ. The main technical ingredient of our construction is an extremely natural (but only in hindsight!) construction of correlation-intractable (CI) hash functions from MQ, for a NIZK-friendly sub-class of constant-degree polynomials that we call concatenated constant-degree polynomials. Under exponential security, this hash function also satisfies the stronger notion of approximate CI for concatenated constant-degree polynomials. The NIZK construction then follows from a prior blueprint of Brakerski-Koppula-Mour (CRYPTO 2020). In addition, we also show how to construct (approximate) CI hashing for degree-$d$ polynomials from the (exponential) hardness of solving random degree-$d$ equations, a natural generalization of MQ. To realize NIZK with statistical zero-knowledge, we design a lossy public-key encryption scheme with approximate linear decryption and inverse-polynomial decryption error from Dense-Sparse LPN. These constructions may be of independent interest. Our work therefore gives a new way to leverage MQ with uniformly random equations, which has found little cryptographic applications to date. Indeed, most applications in the context of encryption and signature schemes make use of structured variants of MQ, where the polynomials are not truly random but posses a hidden planted structure. We believe that the MQ assumption may plausibly find future use in the designing other advanced proof systems.
Correlation Intractability and SNARGs from Sub-exponential DDH
We provide the first constructions of SNARGs for Batch-NP and P based solely on the sub-exponential Decisional Diffie Hellman (DDH) assumption. Our schemes achieve poly-logarithmic proof sizes. We obtain our results by following the correlation-intractability framework for secure instantiation of the Fiat-Shamir paradigm. The centerpiece of our results and of independent interest is a new construction of correlation-intractable hash functions for ``small input'' product relations verifiable in TC0, based on sub-exponential DDH.
Credibility in Private Set Membership
A private set membership (PSM) protocol allows a ``receiver'' to learn whether its input $x$ is contained in a large database $\algo{DB}$ held by a ``sender''. In this work, we define and construct \emph{credible private set membership (C-PSM)} protocols: in addition to the conventional notions of privacy, C-PSM provides a soundness guarantee that it is hard for a sender (that does not know $x$) to convince the receiver that $x \in \algo{DB}$. Furthermore, the communication complexity must be logarithmic in the size of $\algo{DB}$. We provide 2-round (i.e., round-optimal) C-PSM constructions based on standard assumptions: \begin{itemize}[itemsep=0pt] \item We present a black-box construction in the plain model based on DDH or LWE. \item Next, we consider protocols that support predicates $f$ beyond string equality, i.e., the receiver can learn if there exists $w \in \algo{DB}$ such that $f(x,w) = 1$. We present two results with transparent setups: (1) A black-box protocol, based on DDH or LWE, for the class of NC$^1$ functions $f$ which are efficiently searchable. (2) An LWE-based construction for all bounded-depth circuits. The only non-black-box use of cryptography in this construction is through the bootstrapping procedure in fully homomorphic encryption. \end{itemize} As an application, our protocols can be used to build enhanced leaked password notification services, where unlike existing solutions, a dubious sender {\em cannot} fool a receiver into changing its password.
A Note on Non-Interactive Zero-Knowledge from CDH
We build non-interactive zero-knowledge (NIZK) and ZAP arguments for all NP where soundness holds for infinitely-many security parameters, and against uniform adversaries, assuming the subexponential hardness of the Computational Diffie-Hellman (CDH) assumption. We additionally prove the existence of NIZK arguments with these same properties assuming the polynomial hardness of both CDH and the Learning Parity with Noise (LPN) assumption. In both cases, the CDH assumption does not require a group equipped with a pairing. Infinitely-often uniform security is a standard byproduct of commonly used non-black-box techniques that build on disjunction arguments on the (in)security of some primitive. In the course of proving our results, we develop a new variant of this non-black-box technique that yields improved guarantees: we obtain explicit constructions (previous works generally only obtained existential results) where security holds for a relatively dense set of security parameters (as opposed to an arbitrary infinite set of security parameters). We demonstrate that our techniques can have applications beyond our main results.
Non-Interactive Zero Knowledge from Sub-exponential DDH
Abhishek Jain Zhengzhong Jin
We provide the first constructions of non-interactive zero-knowledge and Zap arguments for NP based on the sub-exponential hardness of Decisional Diffie-Hellman against polynomial time adversaries (without use of groups with pairings). Central to our results, and of independent interest, is a new notion of interactive trapdoor hashing protocols.
Unbounded Multi-Party Computation from Learning with Errors 📺
We consider the problem of round-optimal *unbounded MPC*: in the first round, parties publish a message that depends only on their input. In the second round, any subset of parties can jointly and securely compute any function $f$ over their inputs in a single round of broadcast. We do not impose any a priori bound on the number of parties nor on the size of the functions that can be computed. Our main result is a semi-honest two-round protocol for unbounded MPC in the plain model from the hardness of the standard learning with errors (LWE) problem. Prior work in the same setting assumes the hardness of problems over bilinear maps. Thus, our protocol is the first example of unbounded MPC that is post-quantum secure. The central ingredient of our protocol is a new scheme of attribute-based secure function evaluation (AB-SFE) with *public decryption*. Our construction combines techniques from the realm of homomorphic commitments with delegation of lattice basis. We believe that such a scheme may find further applications in the future.
Non-Interactive Batch Arguments for NP from Standard Assumptions 📺
We study the problem of designing *non-interactive batch arguments* for NP. Such an argument system allows an efficient prover to prove multiple $\npol$ statements, with size much smaller than the combined witness length. We provide the first construction of such an argument system for NP in the common reference string model based on standard cryptographic assumptions. Prior works either require non-falsifiable assumptions (or the random oracle model) or can only support private verification. At the heart of our result is a new *dual mode* interactive batch argument system for NP. We show how to apply the correlation-intractability framework for Fiat-Shamir -- that has primarily been applied to proof systems -- to such interactive arguments.
Statistical Zaps and New Oblivious Transfer Protocols 📺
We study the problem of achieving statistical privacy in interactive proof systems and oblivious transfer -- two of the most well studied two-party protocols -- when limited rounds of interaction are available. -- Statistical Zaps: We give the first construction of statistical Zaps, namely, two-round statistical witness-indistinguishable (WI) protocols with a public-coin verifier. Our construction achieves computational soundness based on the quasi-polynomial hardness of learning with errors assumption. -- Three-Round Statistical Receiver-Private Oblivious Transfer: We give the first construction of a three-round oblivious transfer (OT) protocol -- in the plain model -- that achieves statistical privacy for receivers and computational privacy for senders against malicious adversaries, based on polynomial-time assumptions. The round-complexity of our protocol is optimal. We obtain our first result by devising a public-coin approach to compress sigma protocols, without relying on trusted setup. To obtain our second result, we devise a general framework via a new notion of statistical hash commitments that may be of independent interest.
Multi-key Fully-Homomorphic Encryption in the Plain Model 📺
The notion of multi-key fully homomorphic encryption (multi-key FHE) [Lopez-Alt, Tromer, Vaikuntanathan, STOC'12] was proposed as a generalization of fully homomorphic encryption to the multiparty setting. In a multi-key FHE scheme for $n$ parties, each party can individually choose a key pair and use it to encrypt its own private input. Given n ciphertexts computed in this manner, the parties can homomorphically evaluate a circuit C over them to obtain a new ciphertext containing the output of C, which can then be decrypted via a decryption protocol. The key efficiency property is that the size of the (evaluated) ciphertext is independent of the size of the circuit. Multi-key FHE with one-round decryption [Mukherjee and Wichs, Eurocrypt'16], has found several powerful applications in cryptography over the past few years. However, an important drawback of all such known schemes is that they require a trusted setup. In this work, we address the problem of constructing multi-key FHE in the plain model. We obtain the following results: - A multi-key FHE scheme with one-round decryption based on the hardness of learning with errors (LWE), ring LWE, and decisional small polynomial ratio (DSPR) problems. - A variant of multi-key FHE where we relax the decryption algorithm to be non-compact -- i.e., where the decryption complexity can depend on the size of C -- based on the hardness of LWE. We call this variant multi-homomorphic encryption (MHE). We observe that MHE is already sufficient for some of the applications of multi-key FHE.
Public-Key Function-Private Hidden Vector Encryption (and More)
We construct public-key function-private predicate encryption for the “small superset functionality,” recently introduced by Beullens and Wee (PKC 2019). This functionality captures several important classes of predicates:Point functions. For point function predicates, our construction is equivalent to public-key function-private anonymous identity-based encryption.Conjunctions. If the predicate computes a conjunction, our construction is a public-key function-private hidden vector encryption scheme. This addresses an open problem posed by Boneh, Raghunathan, and Segev (ASIACRYPT 2013).d-CNFs and read-once conjunctions of d-disjunctions for constant-size d. Our construction extends the group-based obfuscation schemes of Bishop et al. (CRYPTO 2018), Beullens and Wee (PKC 2019), and Bartusek et al. (EUROCRYPT 2019) to the setting of public-key function-private predicate encryption. We achieve an average-case notion of function privacy, which guarantees that a decryption key $$\mathsf {sk} _f$$ reveals nothing about f as long as f is drawn from a distribution with sufficient entropy. We formalize this security notion as a generalization of the (enhanced) real-or-random function privacy definition of Boneh, Raghunathan, and Segev (CRYPTO 2013). Our construction relies on bilinear groups, and we prove security in the generic bilinear group model.

Program Committees

Crypto 2024
TCC 2023