International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Yutaro Tanaka


Multiple-Valued Plaintext-Checking Side-Channel Attacks on Post-Quantum KEMs
In this paper, we present a side-channel analysis (SCA) on key encapsulation mechanisms (KEMs) based on the Fujisaki–Okamoto (FO) transformation and its variants. Many post-quantum KEMs usually perform re-encryption during key decapsulation to achieve chosen-ciphertext attack (CCA) security. The side-channel leakage of re-encryption can be exploited to mount a key-recovery plaintext-checking attack (KR-PCA), even if the chosen-plaintext attack (CCA) secure decryption constructing the KEM is securely implemented. Herein, we propose an efficient side-channel-assisted KR-PCA on post-quantum KEMs, and achieve a key recovery with significantly fewer attack traces than existing ones in TCHES 2022 and 2023. The basic concept of the proposed attack is to introduce a new KR-PCA based on a multiple-valued (MV-)PC oracle and then implement a dedicated MV-PC oracle based on a multi-classification neural network (NN). The proposed attack is applicable to the NIST PQC selected algorithm Kyber and the similar lattice-based Saber, FrodoKEM and NTRU Prime, as well as SIKE. We also present how to realize a sufficiently reliable MV-PC oracle from NN model outputs that are not 100% accurate, and analyze the tradeoff between the key recovery success rate and the number of attack traces. We assess the feasibility of the proposed attack through attack experiments on three typical symmetric primitives to instantiate a random oracle (SHAKE, SHA3, and AES software). The proposed attack reduces the number of attack traces required for a reliable key recovery by up to 87% compared to the existing attacks against Kyber and other lattice-based KEMs, under the condition of 99.9999% success rate for key recovery. The proposed attack can also reduce the number of attack traces by 85% for SIKE.
Curse of Re-encryption: A Generic Power/EM Analysis on Post-Quantum KEMs
This paper presents a side-channel analysis (SCA) on key encapsulation mechanism (KEM) based on the Fujisaki–Okamoto (FO) transformation and its variants. The FO transformation has been widely used in actively securing KEMs from passively secure public key encryption (PKE), as it is employed in most of NIST post-quantum cryptography (PQC) candidates for KEM. The proposed attack exploits side-channel leakage during execution of a pseudorandom function (PRF) or pseudorandom number generator (PRG) in the re-encryption of KEM decapsulation as a plaintext-checking oracle that tells whether the PKE decryption result is equivalent to the reference plaintext. The generality and practicality of the plaintext-checking oracle allow the proposed attack to attain a full-key recovery of various KEMs when an active attack on the underlying PKE is known. This paper demonstrates that the proposed attack can be applied to most NIST PQC third-round KEM candidates, namely, Kyber, Saber, FrodoKEM, NTRU, NTRU Prime, HQC, BIKE, and SIKE (for BIKE, the proposed attack achieves a partial key recovery). The applicability to Classic McEliece is unclear because there is no known active attack on this cryptosystem. This paper also presents a side-channel distinguisher design based on deep learning (DL) for mounting the proposed attack on practical implementation without the use of a profiling device. The feasibility of the proposed attack is evaluated through experimental attacks on various PRF implementations (a SHAKE software, an AES software, an AES hardware, a bit-sliced masked AES software, and a masked AES hardware based on threshold implementation). Although it is difficult to implement the oracle using the leakage from the TI-based masked hardware, the success of the proposed attack against these implementations (even except for the masked hardware), which include masked software, confirms its practicality.