International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

CryptoDB

Keita Xagawa

Affiliation: NTT Secure Platform Laboratories

Publications

Year
Venue
Title
2019
ASIACRYPT
Quantum Random Oracle Model with Auxiliary Input
The random oracle model (ROM) is an idealized model where hash functions are modeled as random functions that are only accessible as oracles. Although the ROM has been used for proving many cryptographic schemes, it has (at least) two problems. First, the ROM does not capture quantum adversaries. Second, it does not capture non-uniform adversaries that perform preprocessings. To deal with these problems, Boneh et al. (Asiacrypt’11) proposed using the quantum ROM (QROM) to argue post-quantum security, and Unruh (CRYPTO’07) proposed the ROM with auxiliary input (ROM-AI) to argue security against preprocessing attacks. However, to the best of our knowledge, no work has dealt with the above two problems simultaneously.In this paper, we consider a model that we call the QROM with (classical) auxiliary input (QROM-AI) that deals with the above two problems simultaneously and study security of cryptographic primitives in the model. That is, we give security bounds for one-way functions, pseudorandom generators, (post-quantum) pseudorandom functions, and (post-quantum) message authentication codes in the QROM-AI.We also study security bounds in the presence of quantum auxiliary inputs. In other words, we show a security bound for one-wayness of random permutations (instead of random functions) in the presence of quantum auxiliary inputs. This resolves an open problem posed by Nayebi et al. (QIC’15). In a context of complexity theory, this implies $$ \mathsf {NP}\cap \mathsf {coNP} \not \subseteq \mathsf {BQP/qpoly}$$ relative to a random permutation oracle, which also answers an open problem posed by Aaronson (ToC’05).
2018
EUROCRYPT
2017
ASIACRYPT
2016
ASIACRYPT
2015
EPRINT
2015
EPRINT
2015
EPRINT
2014
PKC
2014
PKC
2013
PKC
2013
PKC
2012
PKC
2010
EPRINT
Security of Encryption Schemes in Weakened Random Oracle Models
Liskov proposed several weakened versions of the random oracle model, called {\em weakened random oracle models} (WROMs), to capture the vulnerability of ideal compression functions, which are expected to have the standard security of hash functions, i.e., collision resistance, second-preimage resistance, and one-wayness properties. The WROMs offer additional oracles to break such properties of the random oracle. In this paper, we investigate whether public-key encryption schemes in the random oracle model essentially require the standard security of hash functions by the WROMs. In particular, we deal with four WROMs associated with the standard security of hash functions; the standard, collision tractable, second-preimage tractable, first-preimage tractable ones (ROM, CT-ROM, SPT-ROM, and FPT-ROM, respectively), done by Numayama et al. for digital signature schemes in the WROMs. We obtain the following results: (1) The OAEP is secure in all the four models. (2) The encryption schemes obtained by the Fujisaki-Okamoto conversion (FO) are secure in the SPT-ROM. However, some encryption schemes with FO are insecure in the FPT-ROM. (3) We consider two artificial variants wFO and dFO of FO for separation of the WROMs in the context of encryption schemes. The encryption schemes with wFO (dFO, respectively) are secure in the CT-ROM (ROM, respectively). However, some encryption schemes obtained by wFO (dFO, respectively) are insecure in the SPT-ROM (CT-ROM, respectively). These results imply that standard encryption schemes such as the OAEP and FO-based one do not always require the standard security of hash functions. Moreover, in order to make our security proofs complete, we construct an efficient sampling algorithm for the binomial distribution with exponentially large parameters, which was left open in Numayama et al.'s paper.
2010
PKC
2009
ASIACRYPT
2008
ASIACRYPT
2007
PKC