International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Sebastian Kolby


Aggregating Falcon Signatures With LaBRADOR
Several prior works have suggested to use non-interactive arguments of knowledge with short proofs to aggregate signatures of Falcon, which is part of the first post-quantum signatures selected for standardization by NIST. Especially LaBRADOR, based on standard structured lattice assumptions and published at CRYPTO'23, seems promising to realize this task. However, no prior work has tackled this idea in a rigorous way. In this paper, we thoroughly prove how to aggregate Falcon signatures using LaBRADOR. We start by providing the first complete knowledge soundness analysis for the non-interactive version of LaBRADOR. Here, the multi-round and recursive nature of LaBRADOR requires a complex and thorough analysis. For this purpose, we introduce the notion of predicate special soundness (PSS). This is a general framework for evaluating the knowledge error of complex Fiat-Shamir arguments of knowledge protocols in a modular fashion, which we believe to be of independent interest. We then explain the exact steps to take in order to adapt the non-interactive LaBRADOR proof system for aggregating Falcon signatures and provide concrete proof size estimates. Additionally, we formalize the folklore approach of obtaining aggregate signatures from the class of hash-then-sign signatures through arguments of knowledge.
Taming Adaptivity in YOSO Protocols: The Modular Way
YOSO-style MPC protocols (Gentry et al., Crypto’21), is a promising framework where the overall computation is partitioned into small, short-lived pieces, delegated to subsets of one-time stateless parties. Such protocols enable gaining from the security benefits provided by using a large community of participants where “mass corruption” of a large fraction of participants is considered unlikely, while keeping the computational and communication costs manageable. However, fully realizing and analyzing YOSO-style protocols has proven to be challenging: While different components have been defined and realized in various works, there is a dearth of protocols that have reasonable efficiency and enjoy full end to end security against adaptive adversaries. The YOSO model separates the protocol design, specifying the short-lived responsibilities, from the mechanisms assigning these responsibilities to machines participating in the computation. These protocol designs must then be translated to run directly on the machines, while preserving security guarantees. We provide a versatile and modular framework for analyzing the security of YOSO-style protocols, and show how to use it to compile any protocol design that is secure against static corruptions of t out of c parties, into protocols that withstand adaptive corruption of T out of N machines (where T/N is closely related to t/c, specifically when t/c < 0.5, we tolerate T/N ≤ 0.29) at overall communication cost that is comparable to that of the traditional protocol even when c << N. Furthermore, we demonstrate how to minimize the use of costly non-committing encryption, thereby keeping the computational and communication overhead manageable even in practical terms, while still providing end to end security analysis. Combined with existing approaches for transforming stateful protocols into stateless ones while preserving static security (e.g. Gentry et al. 21, Kolby et al. 22), we obtain end to end security.