International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Katharina Boudgoust


Aggregating Falcon Signatures With LaBRADOR
Several prior works have suggested to use non-interactive arguments of knowledge with short proofs to aggregate signatures of Falcon, which is part of the first post-quantum signatures selected for standardization by NIST. Especially LaBRADOR, based on standard structured lattice assumptions and published at CRYPTO'23, seems promising to realize this task. However, no prior work has tackled this idea in a rigorous way. In this paper, we thoroughly prove how to aggregate Falcon signatures using LaBRADOR. We start by providing the first complete knowledge soundness analysis for the non-interactive version of LaBRADOR. Here, the multi-round and recursive nature of LaBRADOR requires a complex and thorough analysis. For this purpose, we introduce the notion of predicate special soundness (PSS). This is a general framework for evaluating the knowledge error of complex Fiat-Shamir arguments of knowledge protocols in a modular fashion, which we believe to be of independent interest. We then explain the exact steps to take in order to adapt the non-interactive LaBRADOR proof system for aggregating Falcon signatures and provide concrete proof size estimates. Additionally, we formalize the folklore approach of obtaining aggregate signatures from the class of hash-then-sign signatures through arguments of knowledge.
Simple Threshold (Fully Homomorphic) Encryption From LWE With Polynomial Modulus
Katharina Boudgoust Peter Scholl
The learning with errors (LWE) assumption is a powerful tool for building encryption schemes with useful properties, such as plausible resistance to quantum computers, or support for homomorphic computations. Despite this, essentially the only method of achieving threshold decryption in schemes based on LWE requires a modulus that is superpolynomial in the security parameter, leading to a large overhead in ciphertext sizes and computation time. In this work, we propose a (fully homomorphic) encryption scheme that supports a simple t-out-of-n threshold decryption protocol while allowing for a polynomial modulus. The main idea is to use the Rényi divergence (as opposed to the statistical distance as in previous works) as a measure of distribution closeness. This comes with some technical obstacles, due to the difficulty of using the Rényi divergence in decisional security notions such as standard semantic security. We overcome this by constructing a threshold scheme with a weaker notion of one-way security and then showing how to transform any one-way (fully homomorphic) threshold scheme into one guaranteeing indistinguishability-based security.
Some Easy Instances of Ideal-SVP and Implications to the Partial Vandermonde Knapsack Problem 📺
Katharina Boudgoust Erell Gachon Alice Pellet-Mary
In this article, we generalize the works of Pan et al. (Eurocrypt'21) and Porter et al. (ArXiv'21) and provide a simple condition under which an ideal lattice defines an easy instance of the shortest vector problem. Namely, we show that the more automorphisms stabilize the ideal, the easier it is to find a short vector in it. This observation was already made for prime ideals in Galois fields, and we generalize it to any ideal (whose prime factors are not ramified) of any number field. We then provide a cryptographic application of this result by showing that particular instances of the partial Vandermonde knapsack problem, also known as partial Fourier recovery problem, can be solved classically in polynomial time. As a proof of concept, we implemented our attack and managed to solve those particular instances for concrete parameter settings proposed in the literature. For random instances, we can halve the lattice dimension with non-negligible probability.
On the Hardness of Module Learning with Errors with Short Distributions
The Module Learning With Errors  ( $$\text {M-LWE}$$ M-LWE ) problem is a core computational assumption of lattice-based cryptography which offers an interesting trade-off between guaranteed security and concrete efficiency. The problem is parameterized by a secret distribution as well as an error distribution. There is a gap between the choices of those distributions for theoretical hardness results (standard formulation of  $$\text {M-LWE}$$ M-LWE , i.e., uniform secret modulo  q and Gaussian error) and practical schemes (small bounded secret and error). In this work, we make progress toward narrowing this gap. More precisely, we prove that  $$\text {M-LWE}$$ M-LWE with uniform  $$\eta $$ η -bounded secret for any  $$1 \le \eta \ll q$$ 1 ≤ η ≪ q and Gaussian error, in both its search and decision variants, is at least as hard as the standard formulation of  $$\text {M-LWE}$$ M-LWE , provided that the module rank  d is at least logarithmic in the ring degree  n . We also prove that the search version of  $$\text {M-LWE}$$ M-LWE with large uniform secret and uniform  $$\eta $$ η -bounded error is at least as hard as the standard  $$\text {M-LWE}$$ M-LWE problem, if the number of samples  m is close to the module rank  d and with further restrictions on  $$\eta $$ η . The latter result can be extended to provide the hardness of search  $$\text {M-LWE}$$ M-LWE with uniform  $$\eta $$ η -bounded secret and error under specific parameter conditions. Overall, the results apply to all cyclotomic fields, but most of the intermediate results are proven in more general number fields.
Towards Classical Hardness of Module-LWE: The Linear Rank Case 📺
We prove that the module learning with errors (M-LWE) problem with arbitrary polynomial-sized modulus $p$ is \emph{classically} at least as hard as standard worst-case lattice problems, as long as the module rank $d$ is not smaller than the ring dimension $n$. Previous publications only showed the hardness under quantum reductions. We achieve this result in an analogous manner as in the case of the learning with errors (LWE) problem. First, we show the classical hardness of M-LWE with an exponential-sized modulus. In a second step, we prove the hardness of M-LWE using a binary secret. And finally, we provide a modulus reduction technique. The complete result applies to the class of power-of-two cyclotomic fields. However, several tools hold for more general classes of number fields and may be of independent interest.
Middle-Product Learning with Rounding Problem and Its Applications
At CRYPTO 2017, Roşca et al. introduce a new variant of the Learning With Errors (LWE) problem, called the Middle-Product LWE ( $${\mathrm {MP}\text {-}\mathrm{LWE}}$$ ). The hardness of this new assumption is based on the hardness of the Polynomial LWE (P-LWE) problem parameterized by a set of polynomials, making it more secure against the possible weakness of a single defining polynomial. As a cryptographic application, they also provide an encryption scheme based on the $${\mathrm {MP}\text {-}\mathrm{LWE}}$$ problem. In this paper, we propose a deterministic variant of their encryption scheme, which does not need Gaussian sampling and is thus simpler than the original one. Still, it has the same quasi-optimal asymptotic key and ciphertext sizes. The main ingredient for this purpose is the Learning With Rounding (LWR) problem which has already been used to derandomize LWE type encryption. The hardness of our scheme is based on a new assumption called Middle-Product Computational Learning With Rounding, an adaption of the computational LWR problem over rings, introduced by Chen et al. at ASIACRYPT 2018. We prove that this new assumption is as hard as the decisional version of MP-LWE and thus benefits from worst-case to average-case hardness guarantees.

Program Committees

PKC 2023
Asiacrypt 2023