International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Rui Xue


QCCA-Secure Generic Transformations in the Quantum Random Oracle Model
The post-quantum security of cryptographic schemes assumes that the quantum adversary only receives the classical result of computations with the secret key. Further, it is unknown whether the post-quantum secure schemes still remain secure if the adversary can obtain a superposition state of the results. In this paper, we formalize one class of public-key encryption schemes named oracle-masked schemes. Then we define the plaintext extraction procedure for those schemes and this procedure simulates the quantum-accessible decryption oracle with a certain loss. The construction of the plaintext extraction procedure does not need to take the secret key as input. Based on this property, we prove the IND-qCCA security of the Fujisaki-Okamoto (FO) transformation in the quantum random oracle model (QROM) and our security proof is tighter than the proof given by Zhandry (Crypto 2019). We also give the first IND-qCCA security proof of the REACT transformation in the QROM. Furthermore, our formalization can be applied to prove the IND-qCCA security of key encapsulation mechanisms with explicit rejection. As an example, we present the IND-qCCA security proof of TCH transformation, proposed by Huguenin-Dumittan and Vaudenay (Eurocrypt 2022), in the QROM.
The Gap Is Sensitive to Size of Preimages: Collapsing Property Doesn't Go Beyond Quantum Collision-Resistance for Preimages Bounded Hash Functions.
Shujiao Cao Rui Xue
As an enhancement of quantum collision-resistance, the collapsing property of hash functions proposed by Unruh ({EUROCRYPT} 2016) emphasizes the hardness for distinguishing a superposition state of a hash value from a collapsed one. The collapsing property trivially implies the quantum collision-resistance. However, it remains to be unknown whether there is a reduction from the collapsing hash functions to the quantum collision-resistant hash functions. In this paper, we further study the relations between these two properties and derive two intriguing results as follows: Firstly, when the size of preimages of each hash value is bounded by some polynomial, we demonstrate that the collapsing property and the collision-resistance must hold simultaneously. This result is proved via a semi-black-box manner by taking advantage of the invertibility of a unitary quantum circuit. Next, we further consider the relations between these two properties in the exponential-sized preimages case. By giving a construction of polynomial bounded hash functions, which preserves the quantum collision-resistance, we show the existence of collapsing hash functions is implied by the quantum collision-resistant hash functions when the size of preimages is not too large to the expected value. Our results indicate that the gap between these two properties is sensitive to the size of preimages. As a corollary, our results also reveal the non-existence of polynomial bounded equivocal collision-resistant hash functions.


Shujiao Cao (1)
Jiangxia Ge (1)
Tianshu Shan (1)